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y errata »d to


rie pelure,

i^on d
















For John at thei Samue Swan, \ at the .! Cro/s-Ke;




Voyages and Travels,

s o M n

Now firft Printed from OrlgJml Manufcripu,


Now Firft Publiflied in ENctis„'.


With a General P,,EF.,cK, giving an Account of th.

Pr<^refs„fN.v,G„T,OK, from its fi.ft Beginning.


Illuftrared with a great Number of ufeful Maps and Ci.ts, Curioufly Engraven.

Vol. VI.

LONDON: F W ^""^'''^ ^^ Affignmcnt from MefT' Churchill

Samuel B.RT, m Ave- Mary- Lafe, 1^3'^"^ D^v'-^'^p ^''"'■'^''' '^^ ^l^^'-Mef, Swan, without temple. Bar -/t hom aTSoL \n r - }■ ^%°^~=' ^^ the Black- « the^««, next the Inner-Ten^pleGau^'^'^FUel^^^^ J'^"'i Shuckburch,









Voyages and Travels.


C O M 1' A I N i' N G,

of* the Kingtiom of By S A M. Baron, a

I. A T)escription

"TO i\ riu E I-: N,

Native thereof.

II. Travels through EUROPE. By Dr. John Careri. In feveral Lette's to the Counfellor Amato Dan to,

at Naples,

III. A Voyage to yJRGlNlA. By Col. Norwood,

JV. Captain Phii. Lips's Journal of his Voyage from England toCApa Moiinfiriidoe in /IfrUa ; and thence along the Coaft of Ciiiney to IVb'ulaw, the Illancl of St. Thomas, and fo forward to Barbadoes. In which is contained an exadl Account of the Longitudes, Latitudes, i^c. As alfo a Curfory Account of the Country, People, Forts, Irade, ^c.

V. A Voyage into the North-Weft Paf- fage. Written by John Gatonbe.

VI. A Relation of Three Years Sufferings of Robert Everard, upon the Coaft of JJfada, near Madagafcar, in a Voyage to India i And of his wonderful Pre- fervation and Deliverance.

VII. A familiar Description of the MosQUETO Kingdom in Amcnca, with a Relation of the itrange Cuftoms, Rrligion^ Wars, ^3c. of thofe Heathenilh People.

VIII. A Difcovery of Two Foreign Scds in the Eaji-hhlies ; viz. the Sedt of the Banians, the antient Natives of India ; and the Sedt of the Persees, the ancient Inhabitants oi Piijia. With the Religion and Manners of e.ich Seft. By the Kev., Mr. Henry Lord.

IX. An '\ccount of the wonderful Prefcr- vation of the Ship Terra Nova of

O London. By C. M a y.

X. An Account of the King of Mocha, and of his Country.

XI. Some Rf.afons for the Unhealthfulnefs of the IQand of Bombay.

XII. A Journey through Part of the Low-Countries, Germany, Italy and France. By Phillip Skippon, Efq; (afterwards Knighted) in Company with the celebrated Mr. Ray, Mr. Lister, Mr. Willughby, Mr. Henry Massingberd, &(.






Kingdom of Tonqueen,


S. BARON, a Native thereof.


:■ ■*





* m



Sir jf 0 H N H 0 S K I N S,Kt.


R 0 B E R T H 0 0 K E,E{q;


Hon oure d Si rs,

S K N D by this conveyance to Mr. C/jarhs Chambcrliun the promifcd dc- fdiiiti'Mi of 'Tmi'jihtii, wherein I iliitik I have noted the moll material paliiLjes of trade, i;overnment, ;ind eultomsot the lountry, vice and virtue of tnc people, at leaft (b far as will content and liuibfy a moderate mind, and be fiitlieient for a new commillioiicr to condiidl: biifinc' by at hisfirll entrance there. As to thr impcrfi^ Hon. ami i riois therein, you will be pleafed to favour it with join- e.\a*!t (iirvcy and pnulent correction, efpecially to remove or cancel what thereni may be cit'ier a.fainll, or rctiedingly fpoken of Monf. TW:\''7//(7-, fmcc the intention is to inform tiic rcic'er of the truth, and not to carp and find fauhs with odiers; which when I Jid, was only for your particular penijal. The piclures are true and {::i,:ti, tho' not according to ;in ; the map, drawn and computed out of iwt) others, is as near the truth as could be done in this place cither by care or diligence. Of the whole the honourable prelident UxfforJ fendi his judgment to you, whofc liberality has chiefly ftipported my expenccs thereon ; therefore I requeil you will be pleafeil to deliver to Mr. Charles Cham- hirliiin the monev the laid defcription will yield, for the prefident'a ufe. And if you (liould think convenient to dedicate it to the right honourable company, then to make honourable and particular mention of Mr. 7<'^'" '^''iT'") Mr. 7<;wri Jioblaiid, Mr. Charles Chavihtrlain, and Mr. iniliiim Mayor, my benefaftors. I am now on a voyage to China, where if I can pick up any curiofity, or dif- co\erany thing worthy yotir fight or information, you are fure to hear from me; in ilic mean while I recommend myfelf to the continuation of your fa- vour, as,

To t St. Ctor^e If

t'tirnitry .[, i68;-6.

Honoured Sirsf

} our -vers humble devoted Servant,

Samuel Baron.

Vol. Vr.




Ttt the II o N o u R A n L B

William G^ftbrd, Efq\

Vrt'fidt'Ut of Coajl Cormandcll, Bengali, i^c\.

Governour of Fort Sl George,


THIS is but a rough ilraujht of wliat is hi a more clear ami lively man- ner inipiclVd ill vour honour's memory; 1 mean, the ftatc .uid tonfti- tution of ilic kingdom or' 'Ton'^/i/teit, fincc ynurlcif the tirft I'JigHjh man that, ciitring tlic country, (jpen'd iliat trade, and llttled tlicre a tadory for the liDiiourable company; in etiedinif which your patience appear'd no ieis exemplary (iiaviiu; llillcr'd llran\z;c rudcnels and harlli uliigcs from the natives, their ufual welcome to new-comers) than your prudence and dexterity was eminent in that negotiation, wherein (I can fay witliout inciirrinn; the impu- tation of riattcry) your generolity relpetted the honour of your nation ami common benefit much more than your particular interell, ami uith a liberal fpirit beftow'd your wax and honey moll freely on others, tliinking, as that heroick dnmiin exprefs'd liimlelf to tlie eiiipeior C/.uir/cs V. J; jiiy Labour is Ticf/br my/rf/, 'tisJr,rro/irr;fv. to this was your honour's ilcportmcnt, affable, courteous and complaifant to the humours of thofe peoi^lc, wherein your condefcciiding temper was very confpicuou;. ; which, tho' ii had been ac- cuftomed to live in other parts of /W/</ after another rate and fplcndor than the "r'!,ny:.'C:'H''Jl; Cbtitefc or yapaiicfc willingly toler.ue any llrangcr or foreigner to do ill their country, did yet know readily how to plcafe them, by your con- formity and ilafonaLlc receding to their pride, wlicrchv you prefcntly fo gain'tl the good- \' ill of courtiers and merchants (of which they are odierwifc great niggards to new-coiners, yet very loving to them that know their coun- try ami cuftoms) as prov'd no fmall means to uphold afterwards the E/ig/iJ/:


[ iii]

name, your pcr(()n, fii<flory, atul what tile bclonpM to your place, with honour, rcputaiioii ;iii(l crciiit, lUHwiihlVuulinj; tin; DiitLh war, want of (liippiiig, liip- plici, and your iiKapacity to traile, whitli arc mortal iii(kin[>(.rs lor a ncw-lct- ilcil fadtory, all the time ot' your rclidence, until your <lcp.irturc thence, the f'pacc of well nij^h (ix years, in which time )(ui ^ot iiuich exjH-ricucc yourlclf, ami i;avc fo true ami v\\\i\ a character of that couiui-y, whereof there hail been bcfiMC but a confus'il idea nmongll the I'-n^Hjh, as was very advantaj!;cous to commerce.

Thele, and the rcfpcdb of your fupcrintciulcney over the right honourable company's artairs in the Soiuh Seas, the honour of your many years acquaint- ance, have indued me to dirctt thi^ defcription to your honour, whf), as the moll c.ipal>Ie to judi:;e and difcern the truth thereof, fo I hope will have the charity to cinllnie with your iiuiate candor my intention therein. I am fcnfiblc of the inconddcratenefs of my labour herein, tho', to the bell of my mij^ht, I did it as well as the troid'les I was in woulil permit mc ; and that only the fub- jc(fl is to be taken notice of, which is ft:ch as Sir ^ohn Iloskiin and Mr. Robert Hooki\ my moll honour'd friends, alTured me, by reiterated letters out of /'>/if- Ittthl, would be taking', anil acceptable, whole approved judgment, which I (hall always reverence, did alone encourage me to undertake this task, were it but to faiisfy their curiofity and noble delires, ever conllant in alTiduous application to advance learning', and enrich the puhlick by new dilcoveries, whicli other- wite I would not have vcimn-'d on; but lime they were the promoters thereof, I fubmit it to their cenlure, according to li.e following; uilvertifement, but leave the wiiole difpolal to yourfclf, as fioni.

,fy>rt St. Gwr^f it hl.Xilr.t,- fiU*m, 1)11 till.' Cuall ot Ctrm.mJ, 'I, ^igufl >igf, Juno >*8/.

^oufvnj %uwhl( okdiffti' Siyjant^

no leis [natives, fity was

impu- |on and


as thar \ibour is |rtment,

herein |een ac-

)r than


lir coii-


herwifc coun-

Englijh iiamUi,

Samuel Baron.





MY defign at firft was not to undertake an hiftorical narration of Tonqueen, but only to note the errors in Monfieur Tavcrnier's dcfcription of that country, as it was defircd of me by Sir Jobn Hoskius and Mr. Robert Hookc out of Engldfid ; but having made fome fmall progrefs therein, I was quickly tired Vvith finding faults and noting miftakes, aUb thinking I fhould thereby give but fmall fatisfaftion to the curiofity of thofc worthy gendemen, whofe highly adtive genius's penetrate the very eflence of the moft occult things, and finding it much more eafy for me to compofe a new dcfcription of Tonquccn (the countiy of my nativity, and where I have been converfant with perfons of all qualities and degrees) than to corred the miflakes of others ; thefe confiderations, together wiih ambition to do the publick acceptable fervice, and efpecially to demonffrate in fome mcafure my thankfulnefs and profound re- fpefts to my much-honour'd friends Sir "^john Hoslans and Mr. Robert Hooke, induced me to undertake and finilh this work, fuch as it is. I can freely de- clare, that there is nothing inferted herein but what I thought, to the befl of my knowledge, to be exadtly true and real. In dubious matters I had my in- formations from the moft knowing and credible umongft the natives. As for the order and method.I follow'd AT'iiif. Tirjernicr. The ftilc and dicition thereof, fincc they ore my <irft cflliys, jnufl nccdj be very dcfciitive; ihereibrc I intreat my friends to correft and alter what therein they find aniiis, and to dedicate it to whom they pleafc; and in (b doing they will infinitely oblige

"Their r.irjl humbk Servant,

Samuel Baron.

Note, that the original Figures, ivhcrccf tbofe in this Ihok are but a Copy, •were drawn on the Plaee by a Tonquccnecr 0/ eminent yi^i/a/ifv, and ijcrording to wv Ji/dgnjent are do/'e as i.'cll as 'Things cf that nature can be.


Q oiTonqueen, iptioii of that id Mr. Robert herein, I was king I fhould ly gentlemen, moft occult defcription of nverfant with others ; thefe Ic fervice, and profound re- Rohert Ho'ike^ an freely de- to the heft of I had my in- ivcs. As for litloii thereof, lore I intreac 1 to dedicate



(' }>v.t a Copy, y^i/a/ify, ti/hl 'Hire can be.





•^''h'f// Hxff I H'/.o


J'fa/, J






The Defcription of Ton que EN.


Tavcrnicrc'j- Account of Tonquecn animadverted on.

THE kingdom of 'Tonquecn has been difcovcrcd by the Portit- gtiefe ibove one hundred and twenty years fince, and the re- lations tiiat Padre Martin and Alexander de Rodcs, both jefuites, give of it, is in general more true than tiiis ot Taverniere ; for what contradiftions wc Hnd in them, may be imputed to the alteration of things by mutation of time.

Taverniere talks of eleven or twelve voyages his brother made to Tonquecn, from Acheen, Batavia, and Bantam ; on the con- fidence of whofe relation, rogcther with what he inquired of the bonzes, or pricfts, that came while he was in Bantam, he has compiled his hiflory, as fabulous and full of grofs abt'urdiries as lines.

For firfV, the Tonqueenefe have no bonzes or priefts, however they came to Bantam and Batavia ; and then he faith, when the Tonqtieckpf:' make voyages, they take their wives and families with them ; I fuppofe he means thofe voyages they make in the river of Tonquecn, from one village lo another : but for foreign voyages they arc altogether unacquainted with them, unlefs it be fome few of the poorer fort that go to attend llrangers, or are forced othcrwlle for a livelihood. I le notes how the Tonqueenefe were raviflied with admiration, wlien he fliewed them his Atlas, and fome particular maps about the compofure and ftru(fturcof the whole world, and its feveral lingdoms ami flates, wliich they heeded as much as a world in the moon. Neither can I hear of a Taverniere that has nude eleven or twelve voyages to Tonqucer. on his own account ; only thus much I liave lieard, that there has been one Taverniere, a purfcr in the Dutch fervicc, and once i!i Tur.quccn.

He commends his brother for a pcrfon of courage and cunning, how jullly I cannot ti'll 1 but this I am fure, he hasufed but little cordiility, and Icfs fineerity, noiwithiland- ing all his protelbitions, in his account of Tjnqueen : He m.ignifies the great funis of money his brother carried always with him, wlu-n iie went on that vovage ; but it is Vol., VI.

too well known what a purfer in the Dutch Ba Rorr fervice can do, and what they are allowed to do i hindring fo ftridlly the private trade.

He talks of a large prefcnt he gave the king and prince, together with his favour- able reception and familiar convCrfation with them ; if this be true, I fay the Ton- queenefe are much degenerated, yet it can- not be denied, but that ftrangers at their firfl entrance into this country, had, in many refpeds, better ufage than at prefent ; but not fo, as to permit thcmfelves to play with a foreigner the good companion ; at this time they keep their diflancc tu al! flrangers, making bur luiall account of them. To kifs rhe king's hand, is not tlie Tonquecn mode, much lefs permitted to flr^ngers: and when he fpoke the Malayan language fo fluently, he might as well have fpoken French to them, that underflood not a word of either. When he play:d amongft thofe lords, I wonder what game it was t.hat he loft fo many thoufand crowns at, as he men- tions i but it is moft to be admired, that a calf and two jars of T.nqueen arrack, the ufual largefk and liberality of this king, ("water diftilled out of rice) lliould fupply his great lofles. He farther tells you, that by the great familiarity his brother had ac court, and by the frequent dilcourfes ho had with a great many Tonqueenefe, ("who never flir out of the country, however he met them at Bantam and Batavia) he laid the foundation of his work, which ib botli faithful and exaft : Furthermore he faith, no other confideration, than the fpeaking of truth, has invited him to undertake this relation ; all which being notorious con- tradiftions and falfe tales, fhame, indeed, the author the more.

Our author, as all other Europeans, terms and intitles the genera] or Chcva, king ; becaufe he difpoles of the kingdom at his pleafure, receiving all foreign am- bailadprs, except that of China. How- ever, this is f miftake ; for they have their kijig or Bova, though he fignifies no more than a cypher, as will be noted in f^veral places of this relation.

B He


The Defcription

Chap. 2. i

Ba RON He not only vaunts of liiscuts, which he v-'V^' f'lys were drawn on the i)l.icc, and will con- tribute much to the liivertifement ot the reader, but alio prail'es, for its exaftnefs, the map which he gives of the country i than which nothing can be more falfe, for com- pare it with our fca draughts, 'twill plainly

appear what it is : But as fabulous ftoncs and fi'^ions, invented at pleafure, arc plea- ling onl i to the ignorant, Co 'tis moft certain, the ingt lious reader will blame him tor promiling To much, and ufing lb little pro- bity in his hiftory.


Of the Sitiiat'wn and Extent o^ T O N QU E E N.



WE have no more rcafon to admire why our prctlecellbrs had no earlier kn jwledge of this kingdom than ilicy had of that of China, becaufc its difco\ery was f' inching polterior to that ; for the /'cr/w- giii-j,: had no foonerdifcovered the Lift, but they fent out fliips to vifit this alfo.

It is true, this kingdom was a province of China formerly, and pays tribute ftill to that emperor : But that was not the reafon why we had no fooner knowledge thereof, confidcring thefe people have been governed by tiieir native princes for above thefe four hundred years without in- terruption, which was long before the Pc;- tiiguefe came to make their difcoverics in Iiid-a. The true reafon feems to be, that the people did never ftir abroad, nor du yui, for commerce or other alTociation ; and tliey fomewhat afieft in this the Chinefi vanity, thinking all other people to be barbarous, imitatmg their government, learning, cha- racters, t?i". yet hate their perlbns.

I do not know why Tavcinicre fiith moft people ftiould believe this country to be in a very hot climate, confidcring it is fituated under the tropick, and fome part of it more to the northward ; neverthelefs he affirins it to be very temperate, by rcafon of the great number of rivers (and altogether free from thofe fand-hilK and barren mountains that caufe fuch heat in Comm.sroon, and other places in the gulf of Perfia) that v/ater it, together with the rain that falls in its feafon i whereas the truth thereof is, that the rains, indeed, generally fall in the months of May, June, July and Augujl, and fometimes fooner, which moiften the ground, but caufe no frefti breezes at all ; on the contrary, the faid two months ot July and Augiift, make the weather here unfutierably hot. Doubtlcfs the country would be plentiful in fruits, were there not fo many inhabitants, who living by rice chiefly, find therefore the greater ne- ceftity to cultivate what ground they have with that grain, not negletting the leaft fpot. To the north-eaft of this kingdom lies the province of Canton ; to the weft it is bounded by the kingdoms oi Laa and the Bowa ; to the north it borders on two other

provinces of China, Junam and ^lanci, or Ai ; to the fouth and fouth-eaft on Cochin- china. The climate is temperate and whole- Climate, fome, from September till March, fome- times very cold in January and February ; though froft and fnow are never feen here ; for the months of April, May and June are not fo healthful, both becaufe of the rains and foggincfs of the air, and the fun's coming to the zenith : hatju'ic, July and Augujl arc exccftive hot months. The winds are here divided between the north and fouth for fix months and fix months ; the country is delightful from May till Augujl^ the trees being tlien in their verdure, and the fields all covered with paddy, very pleafant to '. ' t beholders.

1 i;c great winds that are called amongft Tiuffhms our fcamen the hurricanes, and known here o"" Hurri- hy the name of Tuiiffoom, reign on this and '^'^'" the adjacent coafts, and the fcas thereof are very terrible ; but the time of their coming is very uncertain, fometimes once in five or fix years, and fometimes in eight or nine i and though this wind is not known in other oriental feas by that name, and with that exceftivc violence, yet that which is c 'lied the Elephant in the bay of Bengajl and the cc '.ft of Cormaudel, is not much inferior to this ; anil the fad effefts thereof are but too often experienced by the fea- men. I cannot find an aftronomcr in all Tongueci:, to ask from whence thofe winds ftiould p oceed, fo I cannot affirm that they are caufed by the exhalations of the mines of Japan.

/-^ for the extent of the country, which Extent.' he makes equal to that of France, it is a grofs miftake -, for this kingdom is rcckon'd by men experienced, to be not much bigger than Portugal ; but may be thought to con- tain four times the number of inhabitants. Tavernicrc makes its limits to be unknown, forgetting that he had fo lately defcribed the borders and extent thereof.

As for iflands belonging to this kingdom, iflmds. there are fevcral in the bay of Tonqxan, the chief whereof is called by the natives TiLcn Bene, and by the Dutch, Rovers iJIanJ. It is fituated in the l.uitude of 19 degrees 1^ minutes north ; i^ leng one and a halt, and



Chap. 2.


ous ITorK-s , are plca- jft certain, : him tor littk pro-

"liianci, or an Cocbin- nd whole- Climate. (h, Ibme- Febmory ; ten here ; and June life of the d the fun's Juh nnd rhe winds lorth and ntlis -, the ill Auguft, e, and the y plea fane

d amongft jiufcms

nown here <"• Hurri-

»n this and '^"•

IS thereof

; of their

imes once

:s in eight

iOt known

ame, and

hat which

ot Bengail

not much

ts thereof

J the fea-

ncr in all

ofe winds

that they

the mines

y, which Extent; ice, it is reck on 'd :h bigger u to con- uibiiaius, nknown, ribed tiie

.ingdom, minJs. 'iiciil, I lie vcs Twot

\ll!d. It

grccs IS

alt, ami


/W fl. M'^ ^ -h' ^


I V .T^ '5f' T^ *i~ '^- ■T^ 7* ?*'<*» 14 i .



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bro.ul half ;^ lcip;iio .u inofl. the bcncr n.irc liigli l.inil, 'IihI 'iiltmt tiom tlic ni.iin one league, hctween wliieli .mil tin- main fl'.i, fliins may pals, as the /5«''Vjiliii t'ormcriy •, but the navigator mull obl'Tve to kefj) tlie illanil fide abo.u\l, witliin a musket lliot i whi-ic 'ou will find lix, I'even, and fevcii and a h.ili fathom-i, ou/.y ground. the i"ime (idc of the illand, whi.h is its well part, are rwo I'mall bays, the nortliermoll has a I'mall jx^arl bank, but not rich, yet none dare to fifli here without the king's fpcchl grant. In both the bays there is fwect water, which we found to be exceed- ing good, and cJteemed the bell we tailed there. At the fouth-wed point of this ifland, is a ridge of rocks, extending f om tin- faid point looiiaces into the lea, and may be difcovered at half ebb, by thr breach tliere on ; for the reft, a clear coall.

Toward:; the north-well, is a fiir bay, three fathom and a iialf and four fathom water, clay ground i here rei'ort many H(h- ing boats, belkies wliat appertain to this village, whole inhabitants I compute be- tween three or four hundred perfons, moll fiflKTinin.

In this illanu is the watch-houfe general, which is a place of the grcateft i>rofit in the kingiiom of 'Tonqiieni : for all trading boats, eitlicr to the province of Tingway or Gidtiii, or from thence to the north, mull (lop here and pay cullom, viz. for a large boat about the value of a doll ir and half, with fomc prefents for the waiters, the rell proportionable ; fo that the cuftoms of this place cannot yield lefs than a million of (.iolhn piT annum.

As tor the ground, it is ftony and moun- tainoui, therefore not proper to manure ; cat- tle we law but fewCtho' the inhabitants told us of many antelopes that flieltered amongfl the rocks and fhrubs of the mountains^ fo that rice and other provifions for fuftenancc, are brought hither from the adjacent fliore. Some good regulations would make this place plentiful, and with fmall cxpence this port might be made a good one.

For cities and towns, excepting that of Cd-c/.'O, there are not above two or three in the whole kingdom of any note. As for A'dcas or villages, quellionlefs the number is great, an J more than I can cxadly affirm, or any man elfe that hath not made it his bulini'fs to inquire after them -, neither is it an eafy matter to find the truth thereof : the city of Cn-cho is the metropolis of Ton- queai, licth in the latitude 2 1 degrees north,

.ibout 4') leagues from the fc.i, and may, IJ x ?o\' for its capaciouiiiefs, be comjiared wirh^--v>i' many cities in ///m, .md fuptrior tj n.cll tor populoufnels, clperially on the lint anil fittcenth of their new moon ; being their market days, or grand B.'Ziii -, v/hLii tile people from the adjacent villages Hock thither with their trade, in fucli numbers, as is almoll incredible-, leveral of the llrcets, llio' broad and Ipacious, are then fo crowded, that one finds enough to do, if he can fom«- timcs advance through the multitude a hundred p.icesin lialfan hoiir. livery ditil- rcnt commotlity fold in this city, is ap- pointed to a particular ftrcet, and tlufo ilreels again allotted to one, two, or more villages, the inhab'Miit. whereof are only jirivileged to keep Ihops in them, muth in the nature of the feveral companies or (Mr\>orinionsin European cities. The courts of thi,, princes, feV. G''j«< (lifii, and high courts of jullice, are kept here, of which I can only fay, they Hand on large trai:ls of ground ; the principal llrudture makes but a mean appearance, be- ing built of wood, the reft of their houfes of bamboos and clay, not well compared ; few of brick except the faftories of llrangers, which out-vie the rell. Stupendous, indeed, arc tiic triple walls of the old city and palace -, for by the ruins they appear to have been llrong fabricks with noble large gates, paved with a kind of marble; the palace to have been about fix or feven miles in circumference ; its gates, courts, apart- ments, £?f. tellify amply its former pomp and glory. In this city is likewife quar- tered a formidable militia, to be ready on all occafions -, and here alfo ftandeth the king's arfenal or magazine for war, feated on the bank of the river, near a fandy ifland, on which the TbecaJaw is kept, as hereafter will be mentioned. This river is called by the natives Songkoy, or the head river : it rifes in China, and after it has rolled many hundred leagues, it palTes here and dilgorgeth itfelf in the bay of Aynam, by eight or nine mouths, molt of t! m navi- gable for vefTels of fmall draught. This river is exceeding commodious for the city, fince all forts of merchandize are brouglit hither as to the epitome of the kingdom, by an infinite number of boats trading up and down the country ; yet they have their houfes in their refpedive /ILlcas, and do not live altogether in their boats, a:i Taverniere reports, but whsn tliey an; voyaging,


? 'Il



! I,

The DefcriptioH

CHAP. 111.

Chap g.

0/ the Niitiire and ProdriS/ivm of the Kuigdvm of Tonqiteen.

Rarom '"■"'HI.S fountry is for the moll part '*'V*»-» J. low .iml, not vinlikc the united provinces, cfpecially tor its moats and banks. The lulls make the frontiers to- wards the north, well and fouth : it is Rivera w.itcred liy one river, which dif- corgccii itli If into the {e\, by many branches, mod ot them ti.ivi^able fiir (hips of mean burthen. I'hefe rivers I'warm with boats and large b.irks, which make it very cotnmodious lor tr.ulers: indeed in this country grows neither corn nor wine, which IS not ocrafioneil by the want ot rains, lor both of them rei|iiirc rather liry thin wi t fjround ; but by realon the in- habitants tlo not n\uch (arc tor them, .is being ignorant of their goodiiets, and therefore do not plant them. Kicc, indeeii, is the chief fultenance of thefe pet)ple -, and the rountry produces fufficient (]iiantities there- of i and if this grain would have grown only by the rains of the months ot 'June and 7«/v, we fhoulil nor have experienced the fad ellWts ot a nioft dreadful and niitous Limine, that fwept away lb many millions of fouls, in thefe two preceding years.

P'rom the rice they diilil a liquor called arrack, but much inferior to a(]uavit;v. Their ploughs, and the manner ot uling them, are much after thi Cbint-fc falhioii, del'cribed in the hillory of Cbviii : the padtly they tread out with their feet, where- in their pradice has made them very ex- pert Fru;r? I he fruits arc equally good in their kinds

with tliofe of other oriental countries, but tluir oranges, far exceed all thiit 1 have tailed : what Tiivernun- calls a palm-tree, is, indeed, a cocoa-nut, the pulp within is white, and tafles fomcthing like an almond -, tiiis fruit is fo plentiful in Suim, that they lade fliips with the oil that is made of the faid pulp, to fupply their neighbours, which is ufed to burn in lamp';.

The liquor tliereof is very cold, and enough, but reckoned bad for the nerves : quellionlefs it is the molt ufefu.' tree that is found in In<ita, ferving for meat, drink, cloathing, firing, building, i^c.

The Guava is a fruit much like his dc- fcription •, but he is mightily out in the i-rt'efts thereof, for whether green or ripe, it is always binding, but not ufually eaten green.

The Piipay is a fruit indeed refembling :i melon, and fumiiwlut of the tallc, not unpkMl'ant.

The /Ineak, called by i[\e Mtil ays, Pc- >'"K<> grows ilrait upright, bearing no liranch, but at the top, like a crown , the fruit of which is in bignef-- ' ke a largr pigeon's egg, which mot' ...; ule to with the leaf (ailed ' .ly the Por-

liiguffe, .ind Sera tiy the ..y'j •, it is good to Iwecten thel)reath, fallen the teeth, ami revive the fpirits: in chewing, the )uicc (hereof turns red ; it is fo much in ufe, that they think they do not make tluir friends welcome without prtlenting them withadilhof it. 1'\M:To>iquaneff, Suimejt, Mala\i and Javiii, had rather lolc a third of their diet than be without it. They have a fig called by them Hungt, in talb fbmething like a carrot, but much more pleifant i not at all like our Euro^tan figs.

'I'he other fort, called Boiiam, or plan- tans, which hi: LiH'i /IJiim'i tigs, (ome .ire in length above a, tome lefs.

The high-w.iys are here and there bc- let with trees and inany flieds, where ttiey fell tea and beetle, 6r<. very commodious lor travellers : and for thole exceeding great trees, that lliade lb many thouUnds ot men, called the Baniaii-tiee, 1 cannot contiad'ffl him •, but what I have teen at Sxtilkw Muiriciif, at ^'urtM, far exceed any ot thefe in bignels.