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PART I.-VOL. I. :::





[ PART I, VOLS. I d 11,-PRICE : Rs. 12-0-0 =Aftt.^




The Salwcen at Ta Hs.-ing 1^ Frontispiece.

King Thibaw and Supayalat {Photo. Sftssrs. Watt ond Sketn) ,

Sattbvia of Loi Ldng Tawnjj Peng and wives . . . . ,

Tlie Salween at Mong Hawm ferry

The UyotauH o( in C^ourt dress {Photo. Signor Beato and Company)

Shar Sawbvia in Court dress {Photo. StgiKr Etaio t nd Company) .

A Wa bridije, side view

A Wa bridge, end view

A Shan trader {Photo. .Messrs. Watts and Skeen) . , . .

Kachins {Photo. Messrs. Watts and Sheen)

Siyin Chiefs {Chin GoBetteer)

Wa headmen in Pet Ken

AUha women . , ,

Karen-ni women {Photo. Captain W. N, Campbell)

Rumai or Palaung wroman {Photo. Signor Beato and Company)

Mftng or Miaotzu men and women . , ,

Shoulder bags or wallets



Map a{ Upper Burma and Shan Stain— Frontispieeg. •"-';";■

XVII. Trans-Salween Sax^bvia and wife in full dress . •,.^* '.,.'

Cliarms of invulnerability ..... ".Vf .. ^••.

KVIW. Tingpan Vao V.'.t; .V^;

XIX. Siyin mode of coiflure (Chin Gatetteer) , -C*. *I:«1

XX. Vimbao Karen men (Photo. Captain W. M Cantpf'eli): ''4

XXL Karen Military policeman and recruit {Photo. Caft,.tn Wttf

bell] .

Plan of Mandalay Palace and buiUlings .... XXIL Vimbao Karen women {Photo. Captain W. N, Campbtll) . XXIU. Chin women's pipes {Chin GaMttteer) XXIV. Kachin women iPkoto. Signor Beato and Company) .' \ , XXV. Sawku Karen girl {Photo. Captain W. N. Campbell) -•;•'

XXVI. Shan women of Num Hkam in Shan-Chineie dress {Pkiie. Beato and Company) .■.•-,.

XXVI 1. Chjnbik women {Photo. Signor Beato and Company) :';\

XXVin. Wa in full dress (Kig. i). Group of Wa girls (Fig. 3) -'''z

XXIX. Akhamen

Instruments used >n spinning and weaving , ,


( 2 )

PL4TB. Page.

Cotton garments made in Shan States 370

XXX. Kachins {Photo. Signer Beato and Company) 390

Representative pottery of Lower Burma 400

Papun pottery ib.

Fancy pottery of Pyinmana 401

Toys of Shwebo ib.

XXXI. Ming or .Miaotzu men 413

XXXll. Knn I^ng ferry iniSpi ' . 45a

XXXUI. A Wa dance 469

XXXIV. A Yenangyaung oil well (Photo. Messrs. Watts and Skeen) . . 514

XXXV. A Kachin house (Photo. Messrs. Watts and Skun) .... 528

XXXVi. Hui Hui or Panihes 540

XXXVII. A Shan ^awtoo in open durbar ....... 553



Chaptir I.— Physical Geography i

Chaitir II.— History.— The rdgns of King Minddn and King Thibaw from

Burmese sources 29

Cbaptw III.— Histort.— The causes which led to the Third Burmese War

and the Annexation of Upper Burma 97

Cbaptbr IV.— The firstlyear after the Annexation 117

Cbaptir V. Final pacification 147

Cbaftbr VI.— The Shan States and the Tai 187

Cbattbr VII.— The Kachin Hills and the Chingpaw 331

Craftir VIII.— The Chin Hills and the Chin Tnbea 441

Cbaptir IX.— Ethnology with Vocabularies 475



Page 3, line 17, for 'west' rtad "east.'

4 '7. M 2o, 'about' 'above/

" 43* >• 9* deh'hy.'

» *^ » 34. /or 'choragos' read 'choragus.*

» 7ft f. 6, 'Bayingyan' 'Bayingan/

». 8». » 2. 'lead' 'led/

f* 83, a8, * Governor ' ' Convenor/

H 85, 2$, &/#• again/

M 86( 33, /or 'Nammada' r«ad 'Nammadaw/

n 87, 3, ' Nammada ' ' Nammadaw.'

" SA >• 5 from bottom, for ' were * reorf ' was.'

" 107» M I4i /or ' Bomby ' read ' Bombay/

» 109. II and 13 from bottom, insert ' to/

n \ii» I, /or 'enquires' rvflt/' enquiries/

•* "I. .. .. *i895' '1885.*

,1 126» » 10, 9t. seq. for 'Myinthfe' read ' Myinthi/

w '33. M 2| for ' Yetagyo * reai/ * Yesagyo/

» 133, 14, ti ' Sameikkyon ' ' SameikkAn/

>• i59. M ». M 'was' 'were'

M 185, 3, read ' Chinese ' Shan States.

188, 9 from bottom, /fff ' 1895 '.raorf ' »835.'

194. « 9 » » 'is* .. 'were/

..203, 15, /or ' Bein-kawngi * rwrf ' Bein Kawng/

207, 11 from bottom, for 'as' read 'as is/

209, in the Mandarin dialect the names are more properly—

5A«, the rat ; A^im, theox; /^«, the tiger ; Tu, the hare; Lung, the dragon; She, the snake; Afa, the horse; Yang, theeoat; tiou.iha monkey ; CAi, the cock ; Ch'iian, the dog; Chu, the pig.

225, line 13 from bottom, for ' Hke ' read ' Hk&/

,,239, 9, t^e/tf first 'him.'

229, '4 from bottom, /or 'get* read 'got.'

» 242, 3, ' Emperer * ' Emperor.'

M 25s, 18, for 'L6ng' read ' Ldng/

270, 21, 'found' * lormed/

,,284, 15 and 18, /or 'flank' read 'plank/

>. 308, S. » 'rules* 'rulers/

» 3»4. » »3» » ' Mong Si' ' M6ng Sit.'

>i 329, « 9 and 23, ' Htamfing ' * Htamflng/

,. 340, 33, ,. ' 1888 ' 1889/

H 367. M » 'stamped' 'stampeded/

m 39Si IW line^ » ' peope * ' people.'

( » )

Page 408, line 35, dtU ' a.*

M 430. n 33»for 'calaxrutitea'read 'calamities.'

» 475. » 18. « professer ' ' professor/

» 4^1 » 3 from bottom, /or 'sides' read 'side.'

». 499* » 8, /or ' billard * reotf 'billiard.'

500, 16, 'warder' 'wander.*

» 505f » » * trough-like,, ' trough, like.'

I) 544* 1. 3 fro™ bottom, /or ' Yawng-tung' read 'Sawng-tiJng.'

*i 57f . » I4» Z*"" * peluMve, read ' delusive.'

m 586> n i<> from bottom, /or 'occassion' r«a^ ' occasion.'

n 59<S» *. /<"' * 3t Lxjti ' read ' a Lot^'

M 597i >i 3 fro™ bottom, /or 'the' read 'that.'

.* 6ao. a M 'whatveer' r«ad 'whatever.





Thk northern and north-eastern boundaries of Upper Burma have not yet been finally demarcated. In f^eneral terms it may be said that Upper Burma lies between the 2oih and 27(h parallels of north latitude and between the 92nd and looth parallels' of east longitude. The greatest distance from east to west is about 500 miles ; from north to south about 450 miles. The area of the Upper Province is estimated at 83,473 square miles and that of the Shan States, Northern and Southern, at a little over 40,000 square miles. On the north the boundaries are : the dependent State of Manipur, the Naga and Chin^paw hills, and the Chinese province of Yunnan ; on the east the Chinese province of Yunnan, the Chinese Shan States, the French province of Indo-China, and the Siamese Tai (or Lao) States ; on the south Lower Burma ; and on the west Arakan and Chittagong.

Within these boundaries, but administered as semi-dependent States, are the Northern and Southern Shan States, described separately ; the Sta'e of Mong Mit (Momeik) with its dependency, Mong Lang (Mohlaing), under the supervision of the Commissioner, Mandalav Division j the State of Hkamti Lung^, which with the Kachin Hills north of the confluence of the upper branches of the Irrawaddy is only indirectly under administration; the States of Hsawng Hsup {Thaungthut) and Singkalins: Hkamtt (Zinglein Kanti) in the Upper Chindwin district ; and the Chin Hills under a Political Officer.

Upper Burma is portioned out into natural divisions by its more important rivers. The Irrawaddy rises beyond its confines in the unexplored regions where India, Tibet, and China meet and runs due southwards, dividing Upper Burma roughly into two equal parts, east and west. After completing about two-thirds of its course


through the upper province, it is joined from the west by the Chind- win, the largest and most imporlani of its tributaries, which flows into it a few miles above the town of PakOkku. The Chindwin may be said to divide the northern portion of Upper Burma west of the Irrawaddy into two halves. South of the fork the country, which is for the most part dry and sandy, stretches away from the western bank of the Irrawaddy to the easlem slopes of the Arakan Yomas and the Southern Chin Hills. This tract comprises the dis- tricts of Minbu and Pakokku. From the junction of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin northwards the nature of the country lo the west of the latter river changes completely. From the right bank of the Chindwin the Chin Hills rise abruptly to merge themselves with the Lushai and Naga Hills in the wide tract of mountainous countryi which forms the whole of the north-western frontier of the Province. On the left bank of the Chindwin the land is comparatively level and stretches for the most part over low ranges of hills to the Irrawaddy valley, but farther north these ranges increase in height, until the whole tract between the two rivers becomes a mass of hill country intersected by mountain streams and inhabited by semi-barbarous communities, whose country extends acToss the main stream of the Irrawaddy to the eastern border of the Bhamo district and as far down on the eastern side of the river as the State of Mong Mit (Momelk), where it joins the northern extremity of the Shan Hills. The country to the east of the Irrawaddy immediately above the frontier of the lower province corresponds very closely with that on the west of the river in the same latitude. It comprises the districts of the Mciktila division and the Magwe district of the Minbu division. It is comparatively dry and arid, is intersected by forest-clad ridges, and is bounded on the east by the rampart of the Shan plateau, which runs almost parallel to the Irrawaddy till about the level of the town of Mandalay. Here the bend of the river brings it close to the Shan Hills, and from this point northwards the space between the stream and the hills becomes gradually narrower and more confined.

Upper Burma is encircled on three sides by a wall of mountain . ranges. The Shan and Karen Hills which run h

ountains. parallel ridges fur the most part almost duenorth^

and south form the eastern boundary. In the Mandalay district the Shan Hills approach the Irrawaddy. The hilly parts of this district, which form the greater portion of its area, may be divided into two tracts, the northern and the eastern. Ihe northern consists of parallel ridges descending from the Ruby Mines district, with peaks of from 2,000 to 3,600 feet ; the eastern consists of the Pyinulwin subdivision and forms a plateau of 3,500 feet above mean sea-level. Both of these tracts geographically form part of



the high-Jands known as the great Shan plateau, as does the Ruby Mines district, which, with ihe CNception of the riverain portion, is intersected by high ranges of hills with points here and there of over 7,000 feet in height. In the west of this district the hill ranges run north and south, but in the interior their course is approximately east and west. In the Bhamo and Myitkyina dis- tricts there are four main ranges of hills, the Eastern fCachin Hills running northward from the State of Mong Mil (Momeik) to join the plateau which divides the bjisins of the Irrawaddy and the Sal- ween ; the ICum6n range extending from the llkamti L6ng country east of Assam to a point north of Mogaung ; the Kaukkwc hills, which start from Mogaung and run in a southerly direction to the plains in the west of the Irrawaddy valley, and the Jade Mines tract lying to the west of (ho Upper Mogaung stream and extend- ing across the watershed of the Uyu river as far as the Hukawng valley. The Chin Hills form the western boundary of the Upper Province, as do the Kachin, Shan, and Karon Hills on the west. These Chin Hills form a continuation of the Naga Hills which con- stitute the eastern boundary of Assam, and southwards they are known as the Arakan Yoma. The Pegu Yoma rises in the uplands of Kyauks^ and Meiktila districts and, running parallel to the Shan Hills, divides the basin of the Irrawaddy from that of the Sittang. The Paunglaung range rises in the highlands of the Shan plateau and divides the basin of the Sittang from that of the Salween. This range, unlike the Pegu Yoma, which is insignificant, ranging between 800 and I J 200 feet, has peaks of considerable height, one at least reaching nearly 8,000 feet. This range sinks down into the plain of Thaton. The easternmost range, which divides the basin of the Salween from the Mfekhong, also runs north and south and In its southerly portion divides British territory from the neighbouring kingdom of Siam and farther south still forms the ridge of the Malay Peninsula. In the extreme north all these ranges take their origin, or lose themselves, in the Tibetan plateau.

Burma may therefore be divided conveniently, but with no great precision, into, first. Northern Burma, including the Chin and Kachin Hills with a thin and miscellaneous alien population ; second, Burma Proper, which is practically the valley of the Irrawaddy after it ceases to be a gorge ; and, third, the Shan tributary States. Burma Proper is practically one great plain ; the hills are comparatively mere undulations, and the one considerable peak, P6ppa, is volcanic. Still it is very different from the vast levels that stretch from the base of the Himalayas. It is rather a rolling upland interspersed with alluvial basins and sudden ridges of hills. The other two divisions are described separately below.



Irra-waddy, Of the rivers by far ihe most important is the Irra- waddy, for long the only great highway of the country. It is described at some length in the British Burma Gasetteer of 1880, as far as it was then known, that is to sav, to the third or upper defile. Since then much has been learnt, out there is still considerable uncertainty as 10 the true source of the Irrawaddy, and the adventurous journey of Prince Henri d'Orleans is merely tantalizing in so far that it proves practically notiiing, except that the conjectures of Britisli ofTuers were right in a particular spot and may therefore be correct throughout. But the actual sources are as uncertaFn as ever. The Irrawaddy is formed by the confluence of two rivers, the Mali and the 'Nmai (the kha which is usually added to these is simply the Kachin word for river and is better omitted, because it leads to such tautologies as the Mali kha river). They join about latitude 25° 45' at a distance by land from Bhamo of about 150 miles. Up to this point the river is navigable in the rains for steamers, though the Manst rapid just below Lapfe, the Tangp^ rapid immediately below the confluence, and the third defile, offer constant difficulties. For over 900 miles, however, as far as Bhamo, the river is navigable throughout the year.

In Kachin Mali X7/fl means big river, and the Burmese call it Myit-gyi. The eastern branch, the 'Nmai kka, means bad river, and the Burmese call it Myit-ngt:, the small river. But, from the data given below, it would appear that the Mali or \vesicrn branch has really the smaller volume of water, and that the 'Nmai river is the true Upper Irrawaddy. The native opinion is merely the familiar oriental theory that a navigable river is a big river, and that along which boats cannot ply a small one. The Mali can be navi- gated by country bnats all the year round as far as Sawan, whereas m consequence of the rapids, impracticable even for dug-outs, the 'Nmai cannot be navigated at any time. The Mali river ts now approximately all known its tributaries, the villages and marches along its banks and it is indisputably the same as the Nam Kiu (the Shan name for the Irrawaddy) surveyed by the late General Woodthorpe in his trip to the Hkamti country in 1884-85,

There is an absence of all accurate information about the 'Nmai river. It has been mapped as far as 'Nsentaru, where the channel makes a sudden turn to the west after flowing from the north. Above 'Nsentaru the general direction of the 'Nmai as it comes down from the north is known, but the river itself is shortly lost behind high mountains, and as to the course north of this no trust- worthy information is to be had. "Nobody goes there" is the extent of native information, and the mountains seem to be as wild and unengaging as the inhabitants. Captain L. E. Eliott says:



" There does not appear to be any trade at all, and the 'Nmai kha " north of 'Nsentaru probably degenerates into a furions mountain " torrent, dashing through profound gorges and quite impracticable " even for rafts of the lightest kind." There appears not even to be a track along its banks.

The old idea was that the river bifurcated some way farther up and that one of its branches flowed from the Naungsa lake lying to the east. This was the version given by the native explorer Alaga, who was sent up in ihu year 1880 to endeavour to determine the sources of the Irrawaddy. He, however, only got a very few days inland in the country between the two rivers and was then turned back by the Kachins. It is significant that no Chinaman or Kachin seems ever to have seen or even heard of this lake, and the march of Prince Henri d'Orleans, corroborated by the researches lower down. of Lieutenant Pottinger, finally disprove the existence of any lake, or, at any rate, of any considerable lake. Considerable doubt seems now also to be thrown on the assumption that the 'Nmai had its source farther north than the Mali and drained a country with a heavier snowfall. In support of this theory Lieutenant A. Blewitt of the King's Royal Rifles instanced the fact that at the confluence the water of the 'Nmai is 6 degrees colder than that of the Mali. This, however, may well be due, as it is in iheSalween, lo the narrow- ness of the valley through which the 'Nmai flows, which prevents the sun from shining on the river for more than a few hours daily. Lieutenant Blewitt took the following measurements of depths and velocities at the confluence in January 1891 :

The Irrawaddy main river in a straight reach of water about 3 miles below Mawkan rapid. Breadth of actual water, 4.20 yards. Eight soundings taken in as straight a line as the boatmen can manage













Soundings in feet Angles to position


a6| 74^"





II 76*

From the above it was evident that either the boat had not kept a straight course, or that the angles were incorrectly taken, since the last three are an impossibility. The angles were unfortunately taken by a native surveyor with a prismatic compass instead of a plane-table. The current at the right bank was practically nii and became gradually swifter towards the left bank. The rate of the whole was little under 2 miles an hour. The sectional area of the river-bed was roughly 20,160 square feet.


Measurements of the ' Nmai kba or Myit-nge^ the eastern branch of the

Irrawaddyt taken about i mile above the confluence. Breadth of water ... ... 165 yards.

Temperature ... ... ... 56°

Pace of current ... ... 3J miles an hour.

Sectional area of river-bed ... 6,600 square feet.

Estimated volume ... ■•• 32,257 cubic feet per second.

Six soundings in a straight line were in feet













True data were very difficult to get owing to the swiftness of the current under the left bank. The last sounding of 14 feet was taken close under the bank.

Measurements of the Mali kha, or Myit-gyt\ the western branch of the Irraviaddy, taken about i mile above the confluence. Breadth of water ... ... 150 yards.

Temperature ... ... 61"

Pace of current ... ... 3} miles an hour.

Sectional area of river-bed ... 4,000 square feet.

Estimated volume ... ... 23,108 cubic feet per second.

Five soundings in a straight line were in feet

First. 1 Second.









Lieutenant Blewitt thinks the rate of the current may have been a little over-estimated in both cases, and the difficulty in keeping the rope taut naturally was against accuracy. Nevertheless, the figures seem to prove that the 'Nmai river is the larger of the two.

The two volumes taken together give a total of 55,000 cubic feet per second at the confluence, and the late Sir Henry Yule, in his introduction to Captain Gill's River of Golden Sand, gives the esti- mated volume of the Irrawaddy at Amarapura as 35,000 cubic feet per second. From what measurements this was deduced is not stated, nor is the time of year given, so that a comparison of the two sets of figures is impossible. The natives of Hkamti L6ng refer to two rivers east of their country called the Nam Tisan and the Phungmai, The Nam Tisan is described as three days' journey from the Hkamti country, from which it is separated by the Tchet Pum, and five days' more marching to the east brings the traveller



to the Noikon range, from which silver Is extracted, and to the east of it flows the Nam Dumai or Phun^mai. The Hkamti Shans are said to call this expressly the eastern branch of the Irrawaddy, and the general similarity of the names Dumai, Phungmai, and 'Nmai, as used by Shans, Khunnongs, and Kachins, tend to show the identity. The depth given by the TlkamtJ Shans would also correspond with the probable depth of the 'Nmai river in that latitude. They de- scribe it as not deep, but not fordable. or somewhat deeperthan the Mall kha about the same latitude, which was ascertained by Wood- thorpe to be 5 feet. Besides this, as Captain Eliott continues, the distance from the Hkamti country east to the Phungmai, about 45 miles in a straight line, would approximately correspond vvitli where the 'Nmai kha valley must be, for the river cannot come farther from the east, since the position of the Lu kiang^ or Salween, is known In the latitude of^ B6nga, and also lower down between Bhamo and Tali-fu. The Hkamti Shans said there were two more big rivers to be crossed before reaching China, and these would be the Lu kiang^ or Salween, and the Lan Ts'an kiattg, or M6- khong. No doubt can remain now that the Lu kiang is identi- cal with the Salween. Yule states that the chief ground for dis- crediting the length of course ascrit^ed to the Salween and its Tibetan origin is its comparatively small body of water, and adds that this may be due to its restricted basin, which is certainly no longer a disputable fact. As far as is known, all the water up to witnin a few miles of the actual Salween falls into the Irrawaddy drainage. It Is the vast drainage of the latter river, combining the Mali kha, 'Nmai kha, and ChJndwin areas, that makes it develope so rapidly into a noble river, at^d the same reasoning will tend to make us look not very far for the sources of the river. It is now nearly certain that the 'Nmai river, or main stream of the Irrawaddy has its source not higher than 28° 30'. Yule calls the east branch of the Irrawaddy in the Introductory essay above referred to the Tchitom, Scheie, Ku-ts'kiang, and Khiu-shi Ho. These will pro* bably prove to be the local Tibetan and Chinese names for the 'Nmaiof the Kachins, or for the streams which unite to form it. It is at any rate definitely settled that the Irrawaddy has no connection with the Sanpu, either by anastomosis, or in any more obvious way. Prince Henri d'Orleans' account of his journey rrom Tonkin to India may be quoted here, since he says it is " by the sources of the Irrawaddy." His journey commands admiration for his courage, his endurance, and the high spirits which he maintained throughout, but his account of it, both in his lecture before the Royal Geogra- phical Society and in From Tonkin to India, is most irritating in Its inconclusiyeness. It is characteristic of the Prince to beirrltat-



ing in the most varied way. It is impossible to determine from his narrative what can be considered as the main stream of the Irra- waddy, and it may be permitted to doubt whether the Prince brmed any idea of the kind himself. What is certain is that he confirms the information and the conjectures of British explorers, that a number of considerable streams early join together and form two great rivers, destined to become the Irrawaddy lower down. But which of these streams is the main branch cannot be ascertMned from the Prince's book. All that is certain is that the 'Nmai and all its affluents are savage torrents, while the Mali early becomes what may more justly be called a river.

The following items are pieced together from the Prince's book, ** A range with a pass of 3,600 mdlres ( 1 1 ,8 1 2 feet) rose between the " Salween and an affluent to the right of it." which seemsto be the Pula Haw, though it is not expressly so stated. This was a little south of latitude 28^ "The two following days were employed in " surmounting a crest of 10,725 feet When we exchanged "this vegetation (thick bamboo brake) it was for barer heights, " among which often gleamed little grey, blue lochs (any one of which "may have been the Naung Sa;, a scenery not unlike some parts of " the Pyrenees. * In the bottom of the valley we sighted

'* the Kiu-kiang, running over a shingle-bed, blue as the Aar

"The inhabitants were of a gentle limid race, Kiu-tses, so named " from the Kiu kiang, though they styled themselves Turong orTu- "long and the river Tulong-Remai." The Prince crossed the river [whose 'name the Kiu kiang may be compared with the Ku-ts kiang and the Khiu-shi ho (kiang and ho both meaning river) as well as with the Nam Kiu, the Shan name for the Irrawaddy] over a bamboo bridge made for him by the Turongs, " The '* river at this point was about 50 yards broad, with traces of a " rise of 40 feet in flood. This valley of the Kiu kiang, which "we had now been threading for several days, wllh many more to " follow (Ironi iollrt0 3oth October), gave an Impression of greater "size than that of iheM^khong, since, though narrow at the bottom, " it was bounded by mountains of receding gradients, each with its " own forest species, from palms below to ilex and rhododendrons " above." The march seems to have been much what it is along the Salween in the Shan States ; stretches along the bank with more shingle and bare rock than sand ; climbs up sleep banks to avoid gorges; descents to torrent affluents the Tatei, Madu- madon, Geling, and Tukiu-mu are mentioned, mostly spanned by liana bridges, which do not exist on the Salween aflluents with camps alternaieiy on small beaches and steep hillsides. The Prince marched 45 miles in the 20 days between leaving and returning to

CHAP. i.


the Kiu kiang, which when he finally marched west "was a broad " sheet of water, swift but noiseless and wonderfully clear. On the " 30th October we reached at nightfall another confluence of two " torrents. One was the Lublu, the other was the Neydu, or Telo '* the great river of which we had heard so much, its silent tide "and tranquil depth. * 'It was a wretched disap- " pointment. Instead of level fields, hills and impenetrable forest as " before ; instead of houses, crags as savage as any in the valley of " the Kiu kiang,*. We had attained one of the '* principal feeders of the Irrawaddy. Like the Kiu kiang, it did not "come from far, but it brought a considerable body of water, and it " is the great number of these large tributaries that accounts for a " river of the size of the Irrawaddy in Burma. * j^e " Dublu crossed (it was 32 yards wide), we proceeded up the " left bank of the big river * transferred ourselves to the " other (right) side of the river on rudely improvised bamboo rafts ; " the water was quiet, deep, and of a grey-blue colour. For the " two succeeding days we climbed a steep and rugged track, "catching sight through openings in the woods of an amphitheatre "of snow-covered mountains. In the west a high white range run- " ning north-east and south-west was identified by us as the Alps " of Dzayul (Zayul, the land of the earthen pots), on the other '* side of which lies the basin of the Upper Brahmaputra in Tibet." Much of the travelling was in actual torrent-beds, a form of high- way familiar to most travellers who have crossed the Salween in the Shan Slates and most destructive 16 boot-leather. Thus they climbed over into the basin of the Mali kha. Various cols are mentioned with no heights given. The highest pass between the Salween and the Hkamti L6ng valley was 3,600 mHres (11,812 feet). The first tributary of the Mali kha, or Nam Kiu, reached was the Reunnam. " We forded a broad and shallow river, the "Reunnam ; and it was hard to believe ourselves at the base of " the lofty mountain chains of Tibet." After this " a diversified " woodland march ended for the day in a real village. Five houses, "each 90 feet long, placed parallel to one another, testified, with the " barking of dogs and grunting of pigs, to an approach of compara- "tive civilization. On the loth November we debouched upon a "fine sandy beach, ideal camping-ground, by the shores of a con- " siderable river, the Nam Tsam. The stream was 40 yards in width " and expanded into a small lake at the foot of a sounding cataract." The Reunnam seems ro join the Nam Tsam about 27** 15' and the united streams apparently enter the Nam Kiu or Mali in about lati- tude 27°. The Nam Tsam was crossed by a fish-dam, erected by Kiu-tses (Turongs). " Mountain rice culture began to be visible



" in clearings of the woods, and felled trees laid horizontally here and *' there assisted the path *. As we drew near to habitations, "averting emblems reappeared, and we noticed a fenced elliptical tomb." This seems to indicate that the Turongs are Chingpaw, or at least closely allied to the Kachins, and indeed the photo- graph which the Prince gives of a Kiu-tse might be taken for a Kachin both with regard to features, method of wearing the hair, dress, and, above all, the linkin dha. After crossing a number of streams, the Pandam, the Nam Lian, the Nam^Chow, all appa- rently easily fordable, and staying for a night at Melekeu, "com- posed of pile-houses sometimes 130 feet long, not unlike the Moi dwellings in Annam,'* the Prince at last enlere<i the level plain of Hkamti Long, which the Lissus or Lesus call Apnn (apparently their name for theShans generally, which recalls the Manipuri name of the kingdom of Pong) and the Kiu-tses and Lutses and other Turongs call Moam. " A wide expanse of apparent inundation, "enveloping lagoons of land, but what to our eyes seemed swamps, "were no doubt paddy-ficlds. The Nam Kiu.or Meli-remai of the " Kiu-tses, the western branch of the Irrawaddy * was about " 160 yards in width and 12 feet deep; water clear and sluggish. " We crossed without delay in five or six pirogues."

Here the Prince had reached country known through the jour- neys of the late General Woodthorpe and Mr. Errol Grey. His journey shows that the sources of tne Irrawaddy certainly do not lie farther north than latitude 28° 30' ; that the Mali kha or Nam Kiu is more of a river and 'that the 'Nmai kha is more of a torrent and in its upper courses is frayed out into a mass of streams very much like a chowrie or a cow's tail. Unhappily, however, we still do not know which is the greater stream. Probably the Mall river will come to be looked upon as the main river, because it is both navigable and accessible. There is an analogy for the smaller stream usurping the name in the Red River, the Songkoi of Tongking, which at Hung Hwa, where the Black River joins it, is the lesser of the two.

Tributaries of the Irra'waddy. Below the confluence the most important tributaries of the Irrawaddy are the Nam Kawng or Mogaung river, the Moife, and the Taping. The first flows in on the right bank and, with its affluent, the Indaw river, is navigable for small steamers, during the rainSj for some distance from its mouth. The other two are left bank affluents and are unnavigable to any distance. Farther south the Shweli, or Nam Mao, flows in from the Shan States and China and the M6za comes in on the right bank. At Amarapura the Mylt-ngfe or Nam Tu comes in from the Northern Shan Sutes, but is not navigable for any great distance.




Below this at Myinmu the Mu river comes in on the right bank. The main tributary, the Chindwin, with its affluents, the Uyu, the Yu, and the Myittha, joins the Irrawaddy some little distance above the town of Fakokku. It is navigable as far as Homalin near the mouth of the Uyu at all times of the year. The only other tributary of any note is the M6n, which joins on the right bank about 12 miles above the station of Minbu.

Sittang. The Sittang river rises in the hills on the fringe of the Shan plateau, runs into the Meiktila division, and does not attain any size until it reaches the Lower Province. In its upper course it is known as the Paunglaung.

Saiween. The Salween is probably unequalled for wild and mag- nificent scenery by any river in the world, but it is, for the present, unnavigated except in broken reaches above the Thaung Yin rapids in the Lower Province. It is probably an actually longer river than the Irrawaddy, but it is characteristic, not only tor the narrowness of its valley, which is little more than a ditch with banks varying in British territory from 3,000 to 6,000 feet high, but also for the limited width of the area which it drains. Unlilit reaches Lower Burma the basin does not anywhere reach two parallels of longitude in breadth. So far as is known, it receives no affluent northofTCokang, which is longer than a mountain torrent, rising in the ranges on either side which form its water-shed, cramped between the Irrawaddy and the Mfckhong.

Yet, or rather because of this restriction of its basin, it is repre- sented on old maps as rising far up in the Tibetan steppes to the north-west of Lhassa ; and since it is now certain that the Salween, the Nam Kong of the Shans, is the Lu jkiang of China and Tibet, there is no reason to believe that these maps are wrong. In his intro- duction to Gill's /^iver of Golden Sand, Yule says : "Every one who " has looked at a map of Asia with his eyes open must nave been "struck by the remarkable aspect of the country between Assam " and Chinaj as represented, where a number of great rivers rush " southward in parallel courses, within a very narrow span of longi- " tude, their dehneation on the map recalling the /asc is of thunder- " bolts in the clutch of Jove, or (let us say, less poetically) the " aggregation of parallel railway lines at Clapham junction." Of these rivers the Brahmaputra, the Irrawaddy, the Salween, the M^khong, the Yang-tze, the Hwang Ho, besides their numerous considerable early feeders the Salween yields to none in the extreme northerly position of its source ; and its size, in latitudes where it is so crushed in that it can have no tributaries larger than hill streams a mile or two in length, seems to prove that these old maps arc correct.



These Jesuit maps call it Nou Kian (Lu kiano\ and it is the Lu-ts* kiang of Bishop desMazurcs. "The French Missionaries who "were for some years stationed near the \.yi kian^^ about latitude " 28^ 20', speak of it as a great river. Abbo Durand, June 1863, " describing a society of heretical Lamas, who had invited his in- *' structions» and who were willing to consign the paraphernalia of " their worship to the waters, writes: ' What will become of it all ? '* ' The great river, whose waves roll to Martaban, is not more than *' * two hundred or three hundred paces distant.' ... A river so " spoken of in latituide 28' 20' or thereabouts may easily have come *' from a remote Tibetan source. It is hard to say more as yet, amid " the uncertainties of the geography of Tibetan sf^ppes, and the " difficulty of discerning between the tributaries of this river and " that of the next ; but the Lu kiang, or a main branch of it, under " the name of Suk-chu, appears to be crossed by a bridge on the " high road between Ssu-Ch'wan and Lhassa, four stations west of " Tsiamdo on the Lan Ts'ang (the Mtikhong.)" The iron suspen- sion bridge in about latitude 25° N. on the road from Bhamo to Tali has been often described by travellers. It is in two spans of altogether 600 feet in length. One span over the main channel is 270 feet wide ; the other over a portion of the bed exposed in the dry season is 330 feet wide. Colborne Baber thus described it : " The floor of this valley lies at the surprisingly low level of 2,670 feet " above the sea. The river is some 340 feet lower, running between '* steep banks of a regular slope much resembling a huge railway " cutting. It sweeps down