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{

A POPULAR HANDBOOK

OF THf.

ORNITHOLOGY

OF

EASTERN NORTH AMERICA.

IIV

THOMAS NUTTALL.

SECOND RHyiSED /IND ANNOTATED EDITION Bv .MONTAGLl': CIIAMDERLAIN.

WITH ADDIIIOXS AND UM-; HlMiRr;D AND TEX I I.H STRATtONS I.\ COLORS.

r*~m

O)

>-

< CD

J

Vol,. T.

BOSTON:

LITTLE, IJROWX, AND COMPANY.

1897.

Copyns^ht, 1891, 1896, Little, Hkown, and Company.

Sinibcrsitjj 4|)rrss: John Wiison and Son. Camhridge, U.S. A

P R E F ACE

TO THE SKCOXD EDITIOX-

nPHK publication of a new edition of this work has enabled me to correct some errors which oc- curred in the former edition, and to add some recent!)- iiisc<)\-ered facts of distribution and habits. We have \ct much to learn about the birds of this country, but when it becomes better known that bird-life displa>-s much that is of ra.e interest to the lovers of nature and tc the thou.Lihtful, contemplative mind,— that the lives of these graceful creatures are analogous to our own ; that they have their periods of infantile helplessness, and are trained for future self-reliance ; that they have their love affairs, select their mates, build their homes,

and foster their offspring with almost human instincts.

we may safely predict an ever-increasing interest in the stud>- of these liver,, and the solving of many problems which baffle the student of to-day.

M. C.

J>.\R I Iardok. Maim;, Sep fern her, 1S96.

m

P R E F ACE.

'" I ""HIS work is practically an edition of " A Manual -*- of the ( )riiitiiology of the L'nitcd States and of C.mada," written by 'J^iO.MAS NUTTALI,.

Nuttall's work has been out of print for sever.d years; but its popularity and real value have ke{)t it in demand, and the few copijs recently offered for sale were dis- ))osed of at hisjjh prices. A new edition was thus called f^r; but it seemed unwise to issue the work in its orii^i- nal form, or to remodel it to the extent that would be required to arrange it in harmony with the new rcij^inw of affairs ornitholoj^ical ; for the science has advanced rapidly since the "Manual" was written, and the ch.cui'/es effected have been numerous ami imoortant. A new and entirely different system of classification has come in vogue; the nomenclature has been altered and trinomials introduced; and, indeed, little is left of American ornithology as Xuttall knew it, except the birds, and even of these, two species have become extinct, and a large nu'iiber of new forms have been discovered.

Thomas Nuttall came to this country from England in iSo8, and be ween 1825 and 1834 held the positions

\in

I'kKi'ACi:.

(»l Cur.itor of the Hotanic dtirdcn .iiul Lecturer on Nalur.il Ilistoi')' at Harvard Universit)-. In i<S4_> lie iclurned to Ln.i;iand, wliere he resided until his de.itU in \>'>y), at the .iL;e of sevent}'-three.

1 he tirst volume of the " Manual," containiiiL; .ui account of the Land Hirds, was j)ublished in 183J, and a second edition, u ith some additional matter, ap[)eared in 1840. The second volume, of which one edition only u.i- issued, came out in 1834.

1 he " Manual " was the hrst hand-book of the subject that had been published, and its deliL,ditful sketches of bird-life <uid its fragrance of tile field and forest carried it into immediate favor, liut Xuttall was more than a mere lover of Nature, he had considerable scientific at- tainment; and thout;h he a[))iears to have enjoyed the stiuly o( bird-life more than he did the musty side of ornitholoL;;}', with its dried i^kins and drier technicalities, he had an eye trained for careful observation and a stu- dent's respect for exact statement. It was this rare com- bination that i:^a\'c; to Xuttall's work its real x'alue ; and tliese chapters of his are still valuable, much too wilu- ahle to be lost; for if a u^reat advance has been made in the study of scientific ornithology, and of the species that occur in the Western half of the continent, our knowledge of the life-histories of most of the Eastern birds has been advanced but little beyond that left us by Nuttall and his contemporaries,

I must not however be understood as undervaluing the recent work of the " American School," as they are styled by luiropean writers ; for it may be said, without exaggeration, that the present generation of workers in this field have placed American ornithology quite

I

PKLIACE.

IX

abreast of that of an\' other couiitr)'; aiul, uulccd, as I have written elsewhere in these pages. the\- ha\'r been called "the pioneers of modern ornithological science." Besides their more technical work, the American stu- (Knts have written some of the best chapters of bird biograi)hy to he found in the entire range of ornitho- logical literature.

While this is but a frank statement of facts, wc must concede that the older writers noted so carefully the habits of the birds they knew that comparatively little was left for their successors to discover.

It was suggested to me thai the new might be com- binetl willi the old. that an interesting and u.-^eful book might be preparetl b\' taking Xuttall's biographies and inserting brief notes relating the results of recent determinations in distrioution and habits. That is what I have attempted in the present work. The Introduc- tion has been given e.xactK' as it appeared in .Xuttall's second edition, and the text of the biographical m.itter has been changetl but little. I\I\' notes follow each cha])tcr in a smaller t\'pe, that the}- ma\- be readilx- distinguished. I have also rewritten the descriptions of l)luniage, and ha\-e endeavored to {)hrase these in such well-known and untechnical terms that they may be understood by unskilled readers. To these I haw added a description of the nest and eggs of each species. In short, an effort has been made to prepare a work that will be useful to young students, as well as entertaining to those who are merel}' interested in birds.

The new matter has been selected with special re- gard for the needs of these classes of readers, for I

I'KliJACK.

liavc liacl another motive in the preparation (jf this work besides that of preservins^ Xuttall's bioj^raphics. Some time a^o I made a j)romise to several Canadian friends to prepare a book treatincj ot' Canadian birds that would be scientifically correct and at the >anie time " popular" in its style. So while writinL,^ these pai^es I have kept Canadian readers constantl\' in mind, and liave j^iveii here an account of every specie> that has been found within the Dominion east of the Manitoba plains, tos4ether with their Canadian distribution.

The limits of a " hand-book " demandinL^ the most rii^id economy of space, when treating; t-f >o extensive a subject 1 have been compelled to omit those species which occur only to the westward of the Mississippi valley, thoutjjh I have endeavored to make mention of every bird that has occurred within this Eastern Faunal Province, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean, and to give their distribution and breeding area so far as these are known. Nuttall knew very little about tlie Western birds, and therefore onl\- a few short chapters of his have been lost through restricting the scope of the present work to Eastern forms.

The nomenclature adopted is that of the " Check- List " issued by the American Ornithologists' Union. The sequence of species is that arranged by Nuttall, with some few trifling alterations; and being radically different from that of recent authors, the student mu.st be referred to other works for guidance in classification as well as for diagnoses of the higher groups. Coues' " Key to North American Birds" is a useful work, and contains matter not obtainable elsewhere, though the

PREFACE.

XI

system of classification ii«j\v j^cncraliy used is mure clearly stated in Ri(];4\vay's " Manual of North Amer- ican Birds." Hut the most complete work at present obtainable, and one which every student should have at hand, is "The History of North Ami-rican Birds." by Baird, Brewer, and Kidcjwa\-. With that work ami the "A. O. U. Check-List" to guide him, the student will be equipped for thorough study.

It onl)' remain^ fur me to thank many friends wiio have aided me. To Mr. William Brew>ter and Mr. Charles I*'. Batchelder. the president and the treasurer of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, I am particularly indebted for kind advice and assistance. Xm niu>t I forget to mention the name of my fellow-wt)rkcr, ICrnest !•'.. Thompson, of Toronto. A l.irge number of the illustrations are from drawings made especially for this work by Mr. Thompson.

M. C.

II\KVAKn r.MVKKSITV. C" AMDRI I'GE. MAsS.

C O N . E N TS.

Ui.ACKEfRn, Red-winged

Rusty

Vellow-hcaded

Bluebird

Hobolink

Bunting, Indigo . .

Painted . .

Caracara, Audubon's

Cardinal

Catbird

Chat

Chickadee ....

Carolina .

Hudsonian Chuck-vvill's-widow Cowbird ....

deeper, Bahama iloney iirown . . . . Crossbill, American . .

White-winged

Crow

Fish

V Cuckoo, lilack-])illed . . .Mangrove Vellow-billcd

DiCKCIS.SKL

Eaglp:, Bald . . . . Golden . . . Grav Sea . . .

Finch, Purple . . . . Flicker

Page

96 119 102

285 109

314

0 362

173 146 150

15'

465

104 3S8 387

Flycatcher, Acadian . C rested . Least . . Olive-sided Traill's. . V'ellow-bellied

I

. GXAICATCHER . . .

Goidlinch

j- American .

Goshawk .... Grackle, Boat-tailed . Purple j Grosbeak, Blue . .

Kvening . 1 Pine

Rose-breasted ', Gvrfalcon ....

37ii

Hawk

Broad- winged

38'

Cooper's . .

126

Duck . . .

'31

Harris'. . .

436

Marsh . . .

437

Pigeon . . .

432

Red-shouldered Red-tailed . .

298

Rough-legged .Sharp-shinned

>9

.Short-tailed

15

•Sparrow

26

Humming liird . . ,

37^-

Jay,

Bl

ue ...

43S

Canada ....

P.\(.K

4'j 421

410 424 420

170

353

34S

31 if4 f'5

3^'7

375

369

7

40

34

9

46

51 II

43

4r, 41 35

457

^33

xi\-

CONTENTS.

Jiiy, Florida . . . J unco, Slate-colored

KiN(ii;iKij

Ciray . . Kingtisher .... Kinglet, Golden-crowned

Ruby-crowned Kite, Lvciglade Mis.sissippi Swallow-tailed . White-tailed . .

L.M'L.A.Ni) Longspur Lark, Horned . . Meadow . .

M.MMi.N. I'urple . . Maryland \'cllow-throat Mocking Bird . . .

Nu.iii H.WVK

Nuthatch, lir^wn-hcaded

Red-lireastcd .

White-breasted

C)Ri()i.K, luTltimore ( >rchard .

Osjirev . .

Oven liird . . .

Owl. r.arn

Harred . Burrowing Great Grav Great Horned Hawk . l.ong-eared Richardson's Saw-whet . .Screech . . Short-tared . Snowy . .

Pakoqukt, Carolina Pewee, Wood . .

Phcel)e

Pipit .....

P.\c.u

'37 339

404 414 461

283

28 1

40

J/ 39

304 294

79

391

249

US/

470 3S6

3^3

^3

93

27

215

75 70 78

f>4 61

53

66

«, ^ /J

7:^

57 6S

55

42S ■4'9

415 292

Raven

Redpoll

Redstart Robin

Hoary

^Sapsucker . . .

Shrike, Loggerhead Northern .

Siskin, Pine . .

Skylark ....

Snowliake . . .

Sparrow, Acadian Sharp IJachman's Chipping Field . . Fo.x

Grasshopper Hcn.-luw's Htmsc Ipswich Lark . . Le Conte'.s Lincoln's Nelson's Savanna Seaside . Sharp-tailed Song . . Swamp . Tree . . Vesper . White-crowned White-throated

Swallow. Bank . .

Barn . . . . Cliff . . . . RouG;h-winged . Tree . . .

Swift, Chimnev . . . .

tai

led

Tanagkr. Scarlet . .

Summer .

Thrasher, Brown . .

Thrush, Bickncll's . .

Grav-cheeked

Hermit

Page 120

355

35^ 1O4

198

450

162

159

297 300

345 327

OJ.J

I)

jj'

33^

329

3.1"

354

326

3^7

33'

328

34^'

325

346

344 -»•>-> J--

342

3'5

3'J^ 401

394

39^' 40;

39<) 46;,

306

309 192

2' 2 211

205

CUNTENTS,

Page

. 120

355

35^ . 1O4

. 198

450 ib2 159 3Si

3^7

333

33(-^

33^

3-9

33"

354

326

317

33^

32S

34''i

325

346

344

3-2

342

332

320

3'5

3^^

401

394

39^'

40."

390 46,^

3of> 309 192 2^2

21 I 205

Thrush, Louisiana Water ( >iivc- backed N\ ater . . . \\ ilson's . . W ood . . .

Titmouse, Fufted . .

Tuwlice

Pac.ic

-14 211

212

207

202 i

142 j

359 I

\'iREu, iJlueheaded . Philadelphia . Red-eved . , Warbiinu , ,

White-eyed . , Yeliow-throated Vulture, JJlack . . . . Turkey . . .

176 1S6 1S2 I So 1 78 174 4 I

W

.K.'UfK. iJachman's . liay-brca.^ted lilr.ck and white Blackhurnian , lUack-pnll . , lilack-throatedBI Black-throated

Green . . lilue-winged .

Canadian . .

Cape May .

Cerulean . .

Chestnut-sided

<-"onnccticut .

Golden-winged

Hooded . .

Kentuckv . .

Kirtland's .

. 26f

^37 3S9

232

238 ue 245

226

247

235

253 260

167

246

265

Warbler, Magnolia Mourning Myrtle . Nashville

Orange-crowned Parula . . , Pine . . Prairie . , Prothonotary Swainson's . Tennessee . Wilson's . . W'^orm-eating Yellow . \ Yelluw Palm Yellow-throated Waxwing, Bohemian

Cedar . . Wheatear .... Whip-poor-will . . Woodpecker, American » toed

Arctic three-toed Downy . . Hairy . . Ivory-billed . Pileated . . Red-bellied . Red-cockaded Red-lieaded . Wren, Bewick's . .

Carolina ....

House

Long-billed M.ush . Short-billed Marsh Winter ....

X\-

PAr.K 224

251 217

264 244 239

hree-

257 256 261 1 68

255

230

210 228 152

154

290

467 456

45 S

452

45' 441

444 448

454 446

276

27 2

266

279 277 270

I

f

i

I

ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOL. I.

COLORED PLATES.

Froiitispit'ce

Platk I. . . .

1. Hawk Owl.

2. sckkecji owi..

3. (;rkat Horned Owl.

4. P'lorida IUjrrowinc, Owl.

5. Bald Eaglk.

^'LVii: n Page go

1. JiALTiMORE Oriole.

2. Meadowlark.

3. Red-Winged Blackbird. ^,. BoiioLiNK.

5. American Osi'rev.

I''-^-"''- in Page 146

1. CllICKADKE.

2. Catiurd.

3. Cedar Wax w inc.

4. Red-Eyed Vireo.

5. RoiilN.

^''•^■''"- I^^ Page 202

f. American Redstart.

2. Blue Jay.

3. Wood Thrush. 4- Water Thrush. 5. Duck Hawk.

Pla'ie V. D _

Page 220

1. Cerulean Warbler,

2. Prairie Warhler.

VOL. I. b

Plate W—contiuurJ.

3. Vellow Waui;lek.

4. PARC LA WVRULEK.

5. Bi.ACKiiURN'Ax Warhler.

6. Bi.ack-Tiiru ied Green

Warhler.

I'' -^"- ^'^ Page 262

1. Maryland Yellow Thro.\t.

2. Blue Bird.

3. Winter Wren.

4- Xashville Warhler.

5. Black-Throated Blue

Warhler.

6. Rchy-Crowned Kinclet.

Page 298

Plate VH

1. Snowflake.

2. White-Throated .Si-arrow.

3. Black-Throated Bunting.

4- Indigo Bunting.

5- Scarlet Tanager.

Pi'ATE VHI Page ido

I Snow Bird.

2. S(jxG Sparrow

3. Phcehe.

4- American Goldfinch.

5- Vesi'er Sparrow.

6. ToWHEE.

xvni

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Pi.ATK IX J\li;e 382

1. Tim: Grosukak (Male).

2. Pink Gkusi!i:.\k (Female).

3. Puui'i.K Finch (Male).

4. I'i'kri.i'; Finch (Female).

5. Rosk-Hkk.v.siki) Grosukak.

6. Win ii,-Wi.m;kd CRossiiii.i.

(Male).

7. WlIITK-WlNClKD CROSSIIII.I.

(Female).

i'l.AlK X /V'' 4.^^

1. Rri;v-Tiii;ttArKi) Hum.minc

HlKD,

2. Hakn S\v allow .

3. Fl.lCKKR.

4. Wiiir-i'ooR-wiLL.

5. Crk.siki) Rkd Bird.

6. Rk1>HKAIJKI) WoOni'KCKKR.

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.

No

Page

No

I.

TCKKKV \'ILHKK . .

1

27. /

2.

WiniK Gyrkai.con . .

7

28.

3-

4MKRICAN Si-arrow

29.

Hawk

13

30

4

GoLi)J',.N Eac.le . . .

'5

3''

.5-

Bald Iv\<;lk ....

•9

J-

6.

American Osi'rkv . .

^7

33-

7-

American Goshawk .

3'

34-

8.

Cuoi'Kr's II.\wk . . .

34

35-

9-

MlSSISSI-l'I KlTK . . .

37

36-

ic.

Amkrican Rorc. ii-Lk(^.c.ki)

27-

Hawk

41

38.

II.

RKD-Siiori.DKKKi) Hawk

43

39-

12.

Broad-Winckd Hawk .

49

40.

'5-

Hawk Owt

53

41.

14.

Snowy Owi

55

•5-

SCRI'.KCII Owi

57

42.

16.

Great Hornkd owi. .

6i

43

17-

LoN(;-Iv\REi) Owl . .

66

18.

Short-Earki) Owl . .

68

44

19.

Barred Owi

70

45

20.

Richardson's Owl . .

73

46

21.

Barn Owi

75

47

22.

Florida EuRROwiN'c. Owl

7S

-3*

Meadowlakk ....

79

48

24.

Bm,"^imore Oriole .

S3

49

25-

RED-W inc. ED r> L ACKH I rd

96

50

26.

Yellow-Headed '.Jlack-

51

imrd

102

52

Boiioi.lNK 109

Blue Jav 133

Canada Jay . , . . 1 3S

TCETED Tn.MOUSE . . I42

Northern Shrikk . . 159

Redstart 164

\\.' son's Waruler . . 168 Blue-Gray GN.vrcATCHER 170

VlLI.oW r.KKASTED CHA L I72

178 187 192 207 215

White-Eyed Vireo . . Mockino Bird .... Brown Thrasher . . \Vils(»n's Thrush . . 0\EN-]5lUD ....

Black-Throated (hiEEN

Waruler 230

Parul.v W.-.rt.ler . . 244 Maryland Vellow-

Throat 249

Worm.E.\it:.'g WARrsi.r.R 255 IlorsK Wrenj .... 266 Carolina Wren . , . 272 Golden-Crowned King- let 2S3

Bi.uEHiRD 285

Wm.AiK.VR 290

A.iERicAN Pipit . . . 292

Horned Lark .... 294

Skylark 297

Il.l.lSTkA'.''IO\s.

ILL.

) Bird.

WiiOni'ECKl R.

r.

A;r

109

' J.)

'^'S

)USE

. 142

RIKK

159

. 164

UfLER

. 16S

VICATCHKR 170 TED ChaL 172 . 178 . 187 . 192 . 207 215

IREO ' .

lER USH

ED (}rEE\

LER . .

LLOW-

244

.... 249 WaRRLI.R 21^5

.... 266

KM . . , •.'ED KlNG-

tT

272

285 290 292

294 297

Xo.

5.5. Sxnwil.AKK . . 54. I.'.M.AND LONGSI'ITK ';.v S'ARI.l.;-] Ta.VAGER

50. Lark Si'.vrkjw

57. VksI'KK SI'vKKow . 5S. S()\(, .Sl'AKR(j\v

>9- Tkkk Si'akrow

"O. Fox Sl'ARK(j\V ,

')!. Siiarp-Tailkd .Sparrow <>2. .American Goi.hfi.n •ij- Gdldkincii . (>4 ki.iu'di.i

65. 1I(JARV Rl Dl'oi.i,

66. Cardinal

67. Kose-Brkastki) Gr(

Ili.AK .... 6.S. I'l.NE GR(J.S1;Kak

'V American Crussjuij. 70 Willi k-Kreasted Nct

ilA'ICH . . .

II

300 306

3^7

33=

33^ 344 34« 353 355 358 362

369 375 37S

3Si

83.

84. 85. 86.

7'- I'-i \iK A\i> White Wa

i;m;r

7^- liAK.N .Swallow .

Trke Swallow .

Hank .Swallow .

KiNOIilRI)

OLivi:.Si/,|.:nF,,v,vi( 11,

Traill's Flycatcher

Carolina Paroockt Vellow-Bii.lki) CrcKo.

rVORY-BlI.I.Kl, WOOI). I'iX.KER ......

PiLEATEI. \Vooi)l.l.;cKER

Yellow-Bellied Sap- sucker

Kci;V-THROATEI. Hl'M-

Mi.No Bird .... 1!elted Kincelsher

GlilMNi;v SWIET . NiGilTiiAWK . .

/J

74

75 76.

77- 78.

79-

80.

Si. 82.

-XIX

As'

K-

3^')

3''4

3'">

401

404

R 410

4-M 4-^8

' 43-^

44 f 444

450

457 461

463

470

-i9

m:^$m

'■ 'O-

INTRODUCTIOxN.

( )i all the classes of animals by which we are surroundetl in the ample fiekl of Nature, there are none more remarkable in their apnearance and habits than the feathered inhabitants of the air. They play around us like fairy spirits, elude approach \w an element which defies our pursuit, soar out of sight in the yielding sky, journey over our heads in marshalled ranks, dart like meteors in the smishine of summer, or, seeking the solitary recesses of the forest antl the waters, they glide before us like beings of fancy. They diveisify the still landscape with the most lively motion and beautiful association ; they come and go with the change of the season ; and as their actions are di- rected by an uncontrollable instinct of provident Xature, they may be considered ar '-oncomitant with the beauty of the sur- rounding scene. With what grateful sensations do we involun- tarily hail the arrival of these faithful messengers of spring and summer, after the lajjse of the dreary winter, which compelled them to forsake us for more favored climes. Their songs, now heard from the leafy groves and shadowy forests, inspire de- light, or recollecti(v-,., . ; the pleasing past, in every breast. How volatile, how p!.',, fully capricious, how musical anil happv, are these roving sylphs of Nature, to whom the air, the eartii, and the waters are alike habitable ! Their lives are spent in boundless action ; and Nature, with an omni.scient benevo- lence, has«assisted and formed them for this wonderful disjjlay of perpetual life and vigor, in an element almost their own.

XXII

INTKUUlCTloN.

If v\x' draw a coiniKiriMUii between the^c inhabitants (jf the air ,111(1 the earth, we shall perceive that, instead of the large head, formidable jawi armed with teeth, the (•ai)a(:i()us che^l, wide ■>h()ulders, anil nuiscular leg:> of the (iuadrii|)eds, they have bills, or pointed jaws destitute of t'^"'th ; a lonj; and pliant neck, jfently swelling; shoulders, iai! ,e verlebrie ; the fore-

arm attenuated to a point and ( lothed with feathers, fonnuig the expansive wing, and thus fined for a different sfjecies ot motion ; likewise the wide extended tail, to assist the general provision for buoyancy throughout the whole anatomical frame. For the same general purpose i)f lightness, exists the ci;ntrast of slender bon\' legs and feet. So that, in short, we percei\e in the whole conformation of this interesting tribe, a structure wisely and curiously adapted for their destined motion through the air. Lightness and buoyancy appear in every part of the structure of birds : to this cm\ nothing cijntributes more than the soft and delicate plumage with which they are so warmly clad; and though the wings (or great organs of aerial motion by whi( h they swim, as it were, in the atmosphere) are formed of such light materials, yet the force with which they strike tin- air is so great as to impel their bodies with a rapidity unknown to the swiftest (piadrupctl. The same grand intention of form- ing a class of animals to move in the ambient desert they occupy above the earth, is likewise visible in their internal structure. Their bones are light and thin, and all the muscles diminutive but those appropriated for moving the wings. The lungs are placed near to the back-bone and ribs; and the air is not, as in other animals, merely confined to the pulmonary organs, but passes through, and is then conveyed into a num- ber of membranous cells on either side the external region of the heart, communicating with others situated beneath the chest. In some birds these cells are continued down the wings, extending even to the pinions, bones of the thighs, and other i)arts of the body, which can be distended with air at the ])leasure or necessity of the animal. This diffusion of air is not only intended to assist in lightening and elevating the body, but also aj^pears necessary to prevent the stoppage or

IMK(.)lJLCTIO\.

Will

interruption of rosplnitiun, which would otherwise follow the rapidity of their motion through the resisti'ng .itmo«>phere , and thus the Ostrich, tluMigh deprived of the power of llight. run^i almost with the swittness of tlir wind, and reiiuires, as he p(jssesseb, the usual resources of air conferred on other l)lrds. Were it possible for man to move with the rapidity of a Swal- low, the resistance of the air, wiilujut M)me su( h jjeciili.ir pro- vision as in birds, would (luickly bring on sullo( jtion. The superior vital heat of this class of beings i> likewise |)robal)ly due to this greater aeration of the vital tUiid.

I)irds, as well as (luadrupeds, may be generally distinguished into two great classes from the food on which they are destined to subsist ; ami may, consequent!) . be termed carnivorous and granivorous. Some al^o hold a middle nature, or partake of both. 'I'he granivorou> and herbivorous birds are provided uith larger ami longer intestines than those of the carnivorous kinds. 'I'heir food, consisting chiefly of grain of various sorts, is conveyed whole into the craw or first stomach, where it is Moftened and acted u])on by a ])eculiar glandular secretion thrown out upon its surface ; it is then again conxeyed into a second preparatory digestive organ : and finally transmitted into the true stomach, or gizzard, formeil of two strong muscles connected externally with a tendinous substance, and lined in- ternally with a thick membrane of great power and 'rength ; and in this place the unniasticatetl food is at length c tmpletely triturated, and ])repared for the operation of the gastric juice. 'I'he extraordinary powers of the gizzard in comminuting food, to prejjare it for digestion, almost exceeds the bounds of cred- il)ility. Turkeys and common fowls have been made to swal- low sharp angular fragments of glass, metallit tubes, and balls armed with needles, and even lancets, which were found broken and compressed, without producing any apparent pain or wounds in the stomach. The g'avel pebbles swallowed by this class of birds with so much r.vidity, thus appear useful in bruising and comminuting the grain they feed on, and prei)ar- ing it for the solvent action of the digestive organs.

'I'hose birds which live chietiy on grain and vegetable sub-

XXIV

IMKODUCTIUN.

stances iKirtakc in a di'grcc of the nature and <lis])osituin <>{ hirbivorous (iiiadnipL-ih. In l)oth, the food and the provision Inr its dii^fstion are ver\ Nimilar. AHke distinjiui>hiil for s and gentleness of manners, their hws are

sedentary

habit>

harndessly and usefully passed in collecting seeils and Iruits, and ridding the earth of noxioti- and destructive insect- ; they live wholly on the defensive with all the feathered ra<"e. and are content In rear and defend their olfspring from the atta( ks

o

fth

eir enemies. It is from this tra< tahle and gentle race, a-

Will as from the amphibious or a«|uatic tribes, that man iias long -.ucceeded in itbtaining useful and domestic species, uliK h, from their prolificacy and hardihood, afford a vast supply of wholesome ami nutritious food. Of these, the Hen, originally from India: the (loo«<e. !)uck. and Pigeon of ICurope ; the Turkey of America ; and the I'i.Jado, or (luinea- hen of Africa, are the princ ipal : to whi( h may also be ad- ded, as less useful, or more recently naturalized, the iVacock of India, the I'lu'asant of the same country, the Chinese and Canada (loose, the Musiovy l)uck, and the European Swan.

CarniNorous birds by many striking traits evince the destinv for which they have been created ; they are provided with wings of grer.t length, supj)orted by powerful muscles, which enable them to tly with energy and soar with ease at the loftiest elevations. I'hey are armed with strong hookeil bills ami with the sharp and formidable claws of the tiger: they ire also further distinguished by their large heads, -.hurt iu<k>. strong muscular thighs in aid of their retractile talons, and .1 sight so piercing as to enable them, while soaring at the greatest height, to perceive their l^rey, upon which they some- times descend, like an arrt)w, with undeviating ;tim. In these birds the stomach is smaller than in the granivorous kinii>. and their intestines are shorter. Like beasts of prey, they arc of a fierce and unsociable nature : and so far from herding tt<ether like the inoffensive tribes, they drive even their offspring iVom the eyry, and seek habitually the shelter of desert rocks, ne- glected ruins, or the solitude of the darkest fore>t, from wlience

IMKDDL'CTIUN.

XXV

posjtiun i>f

provision ihIkiI for

li\cs .lie ind t'niits, •tt^ : they

r.icc, ami lu' attacks

k' TMV. .IS

, man iias (• spciics, rd .1 vast the Hell, I'iuc-on of )r (luiiKM- >.o l>f ail-

; Chinese European

le destiny

(led with

s, vvliirh

>e at the

ked !)ills

tliey are

rl ii'-i