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THE NEW SYSTEM OF THOUGHT.

Which Dr. Snider has been engafired upon for some years, embraces the following works:

I. THE PSYCHOLOGY.

1. Intellect PsTCHOLOOT AKD rsTCHOsis . . $1.50

2. The Will and its Wobld li.so

8. Feeling, with Pboleoomena $i.5u

11. HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY.

1. Ancient European PHiLCsopnY $1,50

2. MODERN European I^ilosopdy $i.50

III. INSTITUTIONS.

1. Social Institutions $1.50

2. The State $1.50

IV. /ESTHETIC.

1. architecture $1.50

2. Music (in preparation) $1.50

3. World's Fair Studies (Chicago and St. Louis) $1.50

The plan has also in view a psychological treatment of History and of Nature.

FEELING

Psychologically Treated,

PROLEGOMENA TO PSYCHOLOGY.

DENTON J. SNIDER

ST. LOUIS:

SIGMA PUBLISHING CO.

210 PISE ST.

COPYRKJIIT IIY I). J. SNIDKR. VJOTk

NIXON'JONrS PTO. CO., SIS PINK ST , 8T. LOUl*.

CONTENTS.

FA6E.

Prolegomena to PsrcHOLoay ... i

A I'll BNOMBSO LOGY IV

Tub Eflo x

Tub XJnivebsal Science .... xiii

The P8vcii08i8 xix

Tub Triad xxvii

Fkelino, Willino, and Knowin« . xliii

PitlMACY IN UKNEKAL 1

PttlMACY OF THE WiLL .... Ivii

Method op Psychology . .* . . Ixviii

pROULEM OF Sensation .... Ixxvii

Doctrine of Parallf,lism . Ixxxvi

TiiorGHT IN Psychology .... xcvi

C'OXSCIOUSNESS CV

Psychological Norm cxi

Divisions cxxv

Pedagogical oxxvii

(3)

341041

CONTENTS.

Fkklin(} .

iNTUODrCTIOX

Pakt First. Elemental Feeling

Sect. I.

Sect. II.

Self-Feeling Simple Feeling Double Feeling Total Feeling .

Wokld-Feelin(j cosmical . Somatic Reproductive

Skc:t. III.

All-Feelin(;

The Hvdowed Self roNsciors .

The Conscious Sei

The Free Self

Part Second. Finite Feelinc}

Sect. I. Impression Sect. II. Emotion . Sect. III. Sympathy .

he-

F

Part Third. Absolute Feeling Sect. I. Religious Sentiment Sect. II. Practical Sentiment Sect. III. Theoretic Sentiment

page.

5

20

24 30 3i) 57

()7 72

87 102

113

120 132 212

218

224 244 271

294 309 33G 3(33

prolegomena to pei^cbologi?.

Ours is an age of specialization. The details of knowledge lie scattered about us in enormous and ever-increasing heaps, with as yet little or- ganization. No science, since the decline if not dethronement of Philosophy, has been able to vindicate itself as the ordering principle of our chaotic piles of experience. Still the prayers for some such science have become loud, and en- deavors have been made to point it out in an uncertain, temporizing manner. But when an attempt to formulate it is made, we behold little els^ than a hasty retreat to some bygone philo- sophical system. In such an emergency all are turning to a new science, or rather to an old science rejuvenatmg itself with a new spirit and aspiration.

(i)

11 PROLEGOMENA TO PSYCHOLOGY.

Psychology has declared itself, as the Amer- ican colonies once did upon a memorable occa- sion, free and independent. If we glance through the introductions of recent books on this subject, we find them striking a more or less triumphant note of the grand liberation. No longer an en- slaved science, subject to Metjiphysics on the one side and to Natural Science on the other : let us celebrate the glorious victory. Thus in general a happy undertone is beard singing through the work of many a psychologist in these days, rising sometimes into a kind of Fourth-of-July jubilation.

Of the fact indicated there is no doubt. Noth- ing can be more evident than the movement away from Philosophy into Psychology, which is now studied almost universally in our higher institu- tions of education and is coining to be regarded, even if vaguely and presentimentally, as the cen- tral discipline of thought. Moreover Physical Science is perceptibly retiring from the fore- ground W'hich it occupied not many years ago, no longer dominating the psychical domain, but rather being dominated by it. Even experimental Psychology, whose disciples have certainly not been deficient in self-assertion, is beginning to see its own limits, and to get a little modest, at least in some of its propagators who recognize that their science has had and still has a good deal to give the world in the realm of Feeling and Sen-

AN IITDEPBXDBNT SCISNCB. Ill

aatioD, much less in thut of Representiition, and little or nothing ia that of Thought and Reason. And yet Thought and Reason belong to the Psyche and its science, which must, therefore, make a new delioiitaticm of itself.

Let US all, then, rejoice with the rejoiccrs that PsjchoJogy, having gone through its long dis- cipline of servitude to ulien miisters, and gotten the training thereof, has attained self-mastery and freedom.

And now comoa the new problem, for the movement cannot stop at this point or at any other for that matter. What will Psychology do with her freedom? Such ia the looming question, enough to run a few sober lines of de- liberation, if not of anxiety, through our jubi- lating faces. Will she keep it all to herself, completely satisfied to have a good tliiug for her own private use, and merely remaining one indi- vidual science among many others, without further ambition? That, in our opiuiun, would be the best way to lose and to deserve to loae her deeply cherished, newly won boon. On the other hand will she become imperious and auto- cratic in her power, seeking to force her terms upon other sciences fi-oin the ouisidc? Wo may recollect, in our readings of the past, that when Philosophy more than ever became the absolutist, and proceeded with an external might through its army of serried categories to subject the

It" >\\c is prepared to euter upo as the universal science, Psyche ready and eager to impart her fret sciences, and organize such im parti presents a general scheme or methc are to adopt, it must be their owe from them the seal of confirmation. ogy evidences them as her own, th( equal force evidence her as their c furnishes the law which they obey i; dom, they must make her the law-ma science, being self-legislative, must the other sciences on that basis, i form the one great Republic of Scie own organic law. Thus we shall s< science in legislating for itself or in its own method, has therein a comm( with all the rest, which common prin to have its formulation as science.

A FBENOMENOLOQT.

peatcd changed in it^ conception. The prevaiK ing conception of it at present i^ that it hiis simply to deal with the phenomena of Mind or ConKciou^inee:^. To use a epcciiil term for this view, it is a Phekomkxolooy, a word employed in German Philosophy, .though generally with a somewhat different purport. Moreover such a conception with its term shows its derivation from Kant, whose grand dualism between Phenomenon and Thing-in-itself lurks in the very definition of Psychology as at present conceived, even if this fact be unknown to nio-st psychologiats. Thus the thought (and we may add, the limita- tion) of the philosopher of Kouigsberg deter- mines, more or less secretly to he sure, the definition and the procedure of our science to- day.

But for the sake of the future, we may try to look a little more deeply into this word. Psy- chology implies by its con.stituents that there is a Logos of the Psyche, whioh gives the ultimiite processes of the Mind, Soul, Ego as they nro in themselves, in their true reality, and not simply as they appear. Such a view intimites, even if from afar, that there is another and profouuder side to Psychology than the merely phenome- nal — a side which is not to bo put down by being branded as metaphysical (as is usually done). Thus our science is to be, when fully unfolded, not another special science, but u kind of Logic

vi PBOLEQOMENA TO PSYCHOLOGY.

(truly sprung from the Logos) of the Spirit which runs through and orders all sciences as products of Mind. This kind of Logic is indeed not the old Aristotelian one, nor the modern Hegelian one, but their complement and final evolution, which goes back to these and shows them to be earlier forms of itself in this line of development. Such an outlook comes to us when we peer into the depths of meaning which lie in the Logos of the Psyche^ foreshadowing the approach of a new universal science.

Taken in its literal simplicity, Psychology signifies the science of the Soul, or of the Miud. Even such a definition gives to it a broad sweep which has been narrowed in various wavs bv different writers, who have in them the prevalent bent toward specialization. On the whole, how- ever. Psychology shows a tendency to break over artificial restriction, and to persist in being the science of the Ego, which means the Self in the largest sense, including the human and rising to the divine Self.

At the present time, as already stated, the most common view of Psychology holds it to be the science of the phenomena of the mind, such as perception, sensation, memory, which this science finds and picks up (so to speak), and then proceeds to describe and to put into some kind of order. As there are phenomena of Nature with which physical science deals, so

A PaBNOMEXOLOQT. vil

there are phenoDiena of Mind with which psy- chological science deals. As there are clusses of flowers, 80 there are ellipses of mental activities; as there are strata of the earth in geology, so there are strata of mind in psychology. Thus both kinds of science, psychiciil and physical, treat of the pheDomena, the facts as they appear, or are made to appear by experiment, and their common pro- cedure is to describe and to order these facts.

Kext we may note the difference in the two kinds. The geologist perceives the stnituni and arranges it according to his scheme; but if he perceives himself perceiving the stratum, lie no longer geologizes but psychologizes. The mo- ment his mind passes from regarding the outer object to regarding its own activity he changes to a new field which has its distinct science. A wholly different set of phenomena rises to view, whose science is Psychology.

The preceding view of Psychology takes it to be one among many sciences, separate, in- dependent. It is not Natural Science, not Philosophy, not Ethics, not Sociology, each of which has its own sphere seemingly quite as separate and independent. Once indeed Psychology was subject to Pliilosophy, and received its method and its position from some metaphysical system ; but that time has passed except for a few antedihivians. Ou llic other hand it was subject quite recently to Natural

Viil FBOLEBOMENA TO P8TCHOL0GT.

Science, particularly to Physiology; but this servitude of it has receded, if not vanished. Psychology, as above said, at present proclaims itself free and independent as a science, and places itself on an equality with other sciences. It is to be noted that the foregoing conception of Science as a whole regards it as broken up into a galaxy of disjointed and disparate Sciences without any unity. There is no central com- manding Science which can hold together these centrifugal units; each is a republic in itself distinct from, yea jealous of its sister republics, and ready to do battle against any one of them which may be getting too prominent. To con- tinue the political metaphor, there is no federa- tion of the Sciences with its supreme Constitution governing and uniting the scattered members, after granting them and even securing to them inner autonomy. They resemble the political system of Europe with its cluster of separated and antagonistic sovereignties instead of the United States, which combines a central govern- ment with the freedom of its members. In other words Science at present is European and is stamped with the impress of the institutional life of Europe. In this form it has been brought to America and is cultivated here. Must not it too bo made to bear the visage of our own in- stitutional world, so different from the European? If so, there is to be again a central Science, as

A PBENOMSNOLOOT. \x

there is :i central Goverument, not domintiting imperially its subject provinces, but composed of equal and autonomous common wealths which both create and are created by their union. Art, Science and Institutions are the work of titc nation's spirit, aiid must ultimately wear the like- ness of the people which produce them.

Once there was a central Science; Philosophy bore that proud title, being called tlio scicn/ia scientiarum. But it has been deposed from its imperial position and reduced to the level of the other sciences, if not degraded to a still lower rank. Philosophy, the supieme European Dis- cipline from ancient Greece till the last century, has been delimited, if not dethroned in its very home, ID Europe itself. Hardly can it be rein- stated in its former spliere of honor and au- thority. What is to take its place? Or is the present separative, disorganized, chaotic condi- tion to continue?

From tho drift of the foregoing remarks the vigilant reader will observe that a successor t^) Philosophy has begun to rise into vision, and show its outlines to watchmen on the tower, and also that its name is Psychology. Thi.ii, how- ever, must be something more tiian " the science of the phenomena of mind," though it be that too; the phenomenoiogical conception is not to be thrown away hut is to be evolved into some- thing higher, and thus taken along.

X TBOLEGOMBKA TO P8T0E0L0GT.

II.

A little attention to the conception of Psychol- ogy just set forth will show the science com- posed of two elements : mind and its phenomena (or activities), as if the first might be something different from the latter, and indeed quite un- known or unknowable in itself. But a little further attention to the same subject will reveal a third element secretly working in the above definition, namely mind. That is, the very thing (or Thifig-in-itself ) whose phenomena are to be described and classified, is the describer and classifier; the hidden demiurge whose mysteries are to be revealed in our science is just the re- vealer, and evidently he is a very important per- son in this whole business. In fact, so impor- tant is he that we intend to call him by a name of his own; this name is Ego. Mind is a word somewhat vague and general, very useful in its place, quite indispensable. But it lacks the red blood of life circulating through the Ego which is so personal in its activity, so direct in its appeal to me, the learner of Psychology. For after all, I am the one who has to know the phenomena of m^^self knowing.

It is evident, then, that the Ego is the begin- ning and end of the psychological process. Its activity is to see and order its own phenomena, which constitute just its activity seeing and or-

TSB SCIB2TCE OF TBB BffO. zt

dering. I, this personal particular Ego, must be an explicit element of the science of the'Ego in general. The facts of universiil mind are not facts for the individual miod till the latter makes them anew and thus becomes a creative part of the total psychical movement. I cannot truly team Psychology without constructing myself at the same time; I am not simply to commit to memory some phenomena of miudand perchance internally or externally verify tbem; thus I leave myself out, though I am the subject-matter of this science. While building it, I am building myself; the play of Hamlet, according to the atlage, cannot well omit Hamlet himself. What I am, I must re-create, and be perpetually re- creating, and this personal Egoistic activity of mine must have its place in the completely for- mulated process. Verily the worth of the indi- vidual is dawning, and his true position in the Universe is at last to fully revealed and organized by Psychology.

Taking up once more the ordinary conception of our science, we said that it showed the Kan- tian dualism. This is undoubtedly true, espe- cially as regards its definition. Yet more deeply still, it shows the dualism in all philosophy, par- ticularly from Plato down. For the Platonic dualism formulates the Phenomenon aud its Substance and therein divides the All in twain. Bat Philosophy itself in its entire sweep, is

Xil PBOLEQOMBNA TO PSYCHOLOGY.

seeking for the Essence of Being (the ouaia of the o;i), and thus presupposes the dualism of the universe into Essence and Being. Now this dualistic view of the world is, we hold, an in- herent and necessary stage of mun*s develop- ment, yet the time is coming when it must be transcended. Philosophy has been a grand Discipline for our race, the supreme one of Europe, in our judgment. Still there must be a return out of its dualism, a mediation of its innate self-antagonism, which has made it the seething cauldron of this earth, if not of the whole uni- verse. This third stage of mediation and resto- ration is, if we mistake not, the mission and the message of Psychology, of course in its trans- figured norm, which elevates it into a new world- discipline succeeding Philosoph\'.

To the foregoing *' science of the phenomena of mind " must now be joined that Ego making the science, which science becomes thus truly its own. I, the individual, make the universal which makes me, I determine that which deter- mines me, or in the political sphere I on my part must make the law which governs me. The science of the Self, which is our Psychology, must be self-determined; thus it becomes the free science, indeed just the science of freedom, being a kind of archetype of all self-govern- ment, personal, political, and universal.

THE UmVEBSAL SCIENCE. xiU

III.

The thoughts GontaiDed in the previous section are fundamcutal, though perhaps somewhat recondite, at least for the beginner. They in- trotluce tlie Ego as the central moving principle of the science of Psychology, without omitting '* the phenomena of mind" as an element of this science. The subject being difficult, we may be permitted to add a few illustriitiona as well us further developments, ut the risk of re- peating some matters which have been already mentioned.

If we take Psychology to be eimply the science of the facts of mind (or of the Ego), we con- ceive it primarily as a mass of materials which are to be arranged and put into scientific form by some power outside of themselves, as is the case with physical science. What is this power? becomes the fundamental question of Psychol- ogy, and imiced of all other sciences, which are likewise arranged by it and reduced to their order. We have alluded to Geology, which has the same power lying back of it and making it a science. Who or what is it investigating the strata of the earth and throwing them into the scheme of their succession in time and place? There seems to be a secret demiurge (already noted) working behind the phenomena of both mind and matter, and impressing upon them

Xiv PBOLEaOMENA TO PSYCffOLOGT.

its own order, which transforms them into science.

This secret demiurge knows the object, then it turns upon itself knowing the object and be- holds itself in such act of knowing the object. It may make a mistake in describing or classify- ing this knowledge, but it corrects its own mis- take; if not, there is no power in the universe which can make the correction. Some recent psychologists have said that their science has nothing to do with the nature of the object, being concerned only about its appearance in the mind. But Psychology must come to tfiink the object, and to think the object is to get at its very truth and genesis. Undoubtedly there may be delusion; but what is to know delusion except mind (or the Ego)? We hear likewise much about the errors of introspection, and they are real ; but who detects them and provides against them? Let us grant that the Ego is the source of all deception, but it is, too, the source of all overccmiing of deception. Some declare that Psychology does not trouble itself about the truth of the objective world, but only deals with its presentation through the senses, as if there was no such thing as Thought in our science, whose very end and outcome is to know what is true. Hence one of the psychological needs of the time is to vindicate a place for Thought in what is truly the science of Thought.

TBB VNIVER8AL 8CIEXCS. XV

There must be, in treating of Intellect, not only Sense-perception (Sensation, Perception, etc), not only Representation (Memory, Imagination, etc.), but also Thought a^ a psychical activity, yea us the supreme psychiciil activity, which makes Psychology itself a Science. We have to think Sensation, for inistance, before it be- comes scientific, for it ciuinot think and order itself as Thoughtoin, thelatter being the highest point of the reflexive, self-returning, solf-dc- finiug Ego. To sense the object may be psychi- cal, but it is not yet psyehologiciil. The Ego perceives the outer world, but this Perception has to pass through the alembic of Thought, and therein be defined and ordered ere it can be a part of the science of Psychtilogy. But this science cannot omit the very activity of the Psycho which makes it.

With this statement we have reached down to the peculiar fact of the Ego; it is the observing and the observed in one, the investigating and the investigated, the orderiug principle and what is ordered, self-defining and thereby all-defin- ing. From this point of view we may regard it us the imago of the All, of the Universe, since the All must define itself, if it be defined, there being nothing outside of it to define it. The Ego, ludeod, as consciousness we shall hereafter discover to be the child of the Universe, bearing its impress and hence capa-

XVi PROLEGOMENA TO P8TCH0L0QT.

ble of becoming universal through Thought. The Ego is, accordingly, self-defined, not de- fined through anything else but itself a gift possessed by nothing besides in the Universe but the Universe. Every definition in every science must ultimately reach back to self -defi- nition as its very ground and generating source. How could there be any definition of anything unless there was a self-definer to give it? If science rests upon right definition, it must go back to the seif-defininoj E^ro for the fulfillment of its pur{)ose. Certainly this looks as if Psy- chology, when it gets to be truly the science of the self-definino: Eiijo, would be the universal Discipline, the science of all sciences and no longer simply one among many sciences.

Let the student not forget that he is an in- tegral part of this psychological movement, he must create it, or rather recreate it in order to possess it. Not merely is he to test each fact of the Ego from the outside, but he testing is also one with the fact tested, the getter of the fact is also the fact gotten. There is a peculiar inti- macy between this science and the one working in it. When the Ego of the student defines it- self to be the self-definer, it is in that very act what it defines itself to be. Very different is the case in other sciences. In Ethics a man may define virtue without being virtuous; in Aesthet- ics he may define beauty without being beauti-

TEB UNIVERSAL SCIBNOE. rvii

ful, and without liia definition being very beauti- ful; in Philosophy he may define the Universe without becoming universal himself. But in Psyehiilogy at its best, he must be what he de- fines hinmelf to be, he thinking cannot help being his own thought of himself. In the self- defining Ego is the point and the only point where Thinking and Being are one. Thus the Ego as part or individual, rounds itself out into its own total process; it defines that which de- fines it and therein completes its own inner cycle ; and its future psychological character will be to determine that which determines it, to make the law which governs it, in fine to create anew the Universe which created it.

Moreover we may now see thtit the Ego must always participate in its own complete process; it, though a part, an atom, must have in it the movement of the whole of which it is a part, otherwise it cannot be a part of its own whole. In Metaphysics the Ego projects its own activities outside of itself, beyond its own horizon, so to epeak, holding itself aloof from them as if they were something alien, and thus making them mere abstractions. Still these abstractions of Philosophy are not to be thrown away, but they are to be filled afresh with the red life of the Ego whence they originally sprang. This Ego, hitherto the secret demiurge making Pliilosophy and all acieoce, must now be brought out of its

xviii PnOLEQOMENA TO PSYCHOLOGY.

lair to sunlight and must become the open par- ticipator in its own process, being determined not simply after the manner of some abstract defini- tion which seems picked up anyhow or anywhere, but being formuhited as self-definer, who always is going forth and defining that which is always coming ]>iick and defining it. If the Ego formu- lates any science, that science must also reveal and even formulate the Ego jis the formulator of itself (the said science). Moreover this Ego as self-formulator has its own science of self -formu- lation, which science is Psychology proper.

Accordingly we are brought face to face with the question : IIow shall this Ego, so long en- sconced in its workshop, be brought forth and made to take its place in the process of its own organization? This docs not mean that it is merely to show itself and let itself be described, measured, classified in its forms as some outer thing all this has been often done already, even to superfluity. But how shall the Ego be manifested, formulated, categorized as making the made which makes it, as doing the work which reveals it, as producing the process which produces it? There must be something which explicitly interlinks the Ego with all its activities, and all its activities with it, so that every sepa- rate stage of it is not only seen but also ex- pressed as the whole of it, and all of these sepa- rate stages thereby connected together. This

TBB F8T0HO8I3. tix

connecting link uniting each acHvity or faculty of the Ego, even the most minute, with the whole of it or with it as a whole, we call the Psychosis whose character and function must next be specially set forth.

IV.

We are seeking just now in our investigation the means, the spiritual instrument by which the hitherto implicit, secretly working Ego may bo made explicit in its own science, and may be- come an open, formulated factor in its own com- plete process. Such an instrument (so we designate it for the nonce) is the PsTcnosiB. This is the primordial, elemeutal process of the Ego, which therein formulates its own inherent nature as self-movement. The Psychosis not only suggests but orders the ever-present activity of mind in all the works of the Ego human and divine, and thus makes itself the unifying prin- ciple of the Universe both in its totality and in its parts.

Such is the fundamental fact or germinal principle of Psychology as here conceived, the Psychosis, which is not to be grasped as some fixed metaphysical substance but as the primal psychical process of the Ego itself beholding and formulating itself. The word is derived from the Greek psyche (soul or Ego), and is thus cognate etymologically with Psychology. The

XX PBOLEQOyUBNA TO PSYCHOLOGY.

Greek termination sia expresses activity ; in the present case it suggests the psyche as active, as process. The word has been not a little per- verted by recent psychologists from its original meaning, being applied as the psychical counter- part to neurosis^ in the doctrine of parallelism between soul and body. Likewise it has sunk down to a purely pathological usage, as may be seen by the example cited in the Century Dic- tionary. From these modern impurities we hope to assist in freeing the word and to restore it to its pure Hellenic fountain-head of meaning.

In the P.svchosis, the Es^o within itself unfolds and formulates its elemental process, which re- mains through all its activities and binds them together. The Psycho^sis is, accordingly, the Ego's primordial act of self-definition, which act it has to go through in defining everything else. That is, every activity, every object, every science completely grasped and expressed by the Ego, must take the form of the Psychosis. You have no other means or implement for get- ting things mentally except through the process of your Ego, and that is the Psychosis. Thus it is the mould through which all has to pass in order to be known. It is the impress which the Ego stamps upon the world, (»r rather finds al- ready stamped upon it, for we shall hereafter see that the Universe itself is a Psychosis, beinor the very process of the All-Ego, or of the Divine

\

TSS F8TCB08I8. ixl

Self. The Ego psychologizing" is the Psychosis detecting itself and unfolding itself in all its own activities, and then in all the works of Nature aud Man.

At the beginning, therefore, it is necessary to comprehend this process of the Ego, which has three stages.

1. The Ego, in the first stage of the Psycho- sis, is implicit, undeveloped, undivided within itself, and hence unconscious. We may also call this its immediate or potential stage, not yet realized, full of its own possibilities. The child is the potential man, but the man too has in him a world of potentialities.

But the Egt> within itself has the breach, the divisien, the separation of itself from itself. Hence the following.

2. The second stage of the Psychosis is the divided, the different, the separative, in which the Ego separates itself and nialfes itself its own object. From the simple or one-fold it becomes the dual or two-fold, which fact is expressed in the two terms, subject and object. The Ego can now become self-knowing, self-conscious ; at this stage introspection can begin and hold up the Ego before itself.

Still the Ego in its self-separation is also one and must assert its oneness, which is no longer the first immediate unity, but i:^ mediated through the separation.

xxil PROLEGOMENA TO PSTCHOLOGT.

3. The third £(tage of the Psychosis is the self-returning one, the Ego returns out of sepa- ration into unity with itself. This new concrete unity of the Ego has, therefore, separation be- hind it, present but overcome ; it completes the Psychosis, and thus reveals the total Psychosis, which is now seen to move in a cycle, in a going forth (separation) and a coming back (return).

It would be well for the student, who is not in too great a hurry, to find some illustrations or trace some analogies of this movement of the Psychosis. It shows the restoration after the fall, the recovery after the lapse, the atonement (at-one-ment) after the sin. It is the inner pulse of all Bibles, religious and literary. It underlies the total sweep of History, from Orient through Europe, to Occident. It hints the grand harmony of existence attained through the resolution of all the discords of life. Finally the Psychosis must be seen to be God's as well as Man's.

Especial notice is to be taken of the fact that the foregoing germinal process of the Pigo is threefold, or rather triune, thrce-in-ono. If this be so, it follows that every act of the Ego, as well as every object which it grasps, will ulti- mately assume the triune form. Any other way can only represent some stage of incomplotenc8s. (For a fuller account of the Psychosis, see our Psychology and Psychosis^ 12—24.)

TBS P8TCB0ST8. xxii!

It will be observed that in the above account of the Psychosis, wo have hud to employ ab- Btract or metaphysical terms for describing its stages. When we calliU first stage immediate or potential, its second stage separative or subject and object, its third stage the return or the restoration, we ore usingdesignations which have long been known in the History of Thought, and which Philosophy had already elaborated far back in ancient Greece. But these terms when employed b}' Philosophy are taken to express the essence of Being (the ounia of on in Aris- totle's phrase), and not to express the process of the Ego. There is explicitly no Psychosis in Greek Philosophy, or in any Philosophy, though implicitly it is at work all the time, since Pliilos- ophy likewise is made by the Ego and bears its stamp from beginningfo end. But in the acknowl- edged, explicit Psychosis, Philosophy is seen passing over into Psychology, and metaphysical terms are transformed into psychological, being brought to describe the very process of the Ego, which has now become the true essence of Being, the concrete fact of it and of all the abstractions generated by Metaphysics for explaining it.

In these statements we are to recoguizo the great service rendered by Philosophy to man's culture. It has elabomted the hmguage of Thought, and trained the huninn mind to tliink- iag by means of the same. But its abstractions

XXlv PBOLEGOMEyA TO PSTCEOLOGT.

thrown out from their source in the Ego and held long in a state of separation (we might almost say, alienation), must in the new time and in the new world be brought back to their psychical fountain-head and thus bo restored to their original birth-right and even birth-place. Psychology, when it gets to its true significance , can only mean an era of restoration in the widest sense, for the Ego, Man himself, is to return out of his long period of dualism and self- estrangement (very necessary, let it here said), which has found its chief expression in Philos- ophy. Herein we begin to see that Psychology in its new form belongs itself to a vast World- Psychosis of which it is the third stage, the Re- turn, and of which Philosophy is the second stage, showing the grand broach and separation of the Ego, or Man in his self-alienated con- dition.

Such is, then, the first attempt to draw the out- line of the Psvchosis, which winds throu^jh our whole science in its vastest sweeps and in its smallest detours, binding them all together into one complete interconnected Totality. It is a simple but very subtle thing, easy enough to see at the start, but difficult to track through all its mazes and mcanderinsrs and multitudinous trans- formations in the universe of mind. Moreover, wo mav note aorain in the verv terms used to do- scribe it the transition from Philosophy into

THE PSYCHOSIS. XXT

Psychology, the bridge from the metaphysical iolo the psychical renlm.

A warning may here be interpolated. The Psychosis h:i3 its formal aspect, and it may degeoerate into a mechanical abacadabra. It may be externally clapped on anything without being made to reacli tlie inner psychical move- ment of the subject-matter. Every formulation of thought, particularly Philosophy, runs tlie same danger; yea language itself, being com- posed of univeraals in the form of words, easily doses its concreteness in unskillful hands. Yet the Psychosis by its very nature is the bringing back of all abstract forms to their original creative source iu the Ego, whicli is the nmst concrete thing in the Universe. Into tlio know- ing of every object it seeks to put tlie genetic process. Least of all formulations has it the tendency to lapse into a mere machine grinding out categories. Still it may be thus perverted, since it cannot do without wordu, yea abstract words, even if these abstract words it always tries to fill with ita own vitalizing movement. Though it seeks to save every organism and every science from being reduced to a heap of dry bones, in certain minds it cannot save itself from such fate, Undcmbtcdiy it is a system, but it is peculiarly that which makes its own and nil other systems, and whose system niu^t always be making itself. It docs not merely applj' to the

xxvi PBOLEQOMBNA TO PSTCSOLOGT.

large divisions of science, but to the small and the smallest, since it is universal. It cannot fetter the spirit by its prescribed movement, since this very prescription prescribes separation from all prescription. For the Psychosis makes separation an integral part of its process, even the separa- tion of itself from itself. Thus freedom in every possible shape can be made organic in the Pisychosis, being taken up and put inside its process, and so not left outside where it turns itself and everything else into anarchy. The Psj'chosis is always free to separate from its own * forms, even from its own system, yet it must always return out of such separation, or whiz madly into chaos.

And now it lies directly on our path to take a somewhat detailed survey of this mechanical side of the Psychosis or its quantitative expression, which is very necessary to its appearance in the world, and yet can hardly be deemed its inner governing principle. The outer mechanism of the Psychosis is a Three, a Triplicity, a Triad, as we see from its form already given. Still wc are not to fororet that this mechanism and all mechanism, yea quantity itself in its farthest mathematical ramifications, is likewise the woivk of the Egro and the Psvchosis. Above all, let us recQllect that the numf)or Throe docs not make the Psychosis, but ismadcprimordially by it, and

TBE TRIAD. xxTil

bence is the basic number as representing tlie basic process quHtititatively.

V.

From the nature of the Psychosis, the infer- ence must be drawn that the movement of the present science in all its varied development will be threefold, triune, triadal. Hence it comes that Psychology will call up and apply to all itd details the principle of The Triad as the form of its ultimate, active, psychical germ, of its genetic process.

Equally certain is it that such a procedure will evoke strong objection. Especially at the pres- ent time the system of Triiids is in disfavor, as Eomething methodical, over-formulated, long since transcended. Our age is scientific, inves- tigative, turning to the particular rather than to the general; even our universities in spite of their name, are distinguished for not being uni- versal. Specialization is the watch-word with its deeply-rooted prejudice against system, which indeed its one-sided devotees become impotent to produce or oven to grasp when produced. More- over, any such system is supposed to retard if not to prevent evolution, though it requires no